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Background

For a long time, word-processing has been used to create some simple graphic documents. A word processor program lacked specific features for logo design, letter head design, newspaper advertisement, greeting, wedding and birthday cards. Traditional typesetting involved the use of word processors to design and type simple text, a graphics specialist to design logos and artwork and a printer to put together text and graphics in a plate which was then used to run publications The process and timing was very involving and expensive. With the advent of desktop publishing programs, these documents are made easier to design.

 

Objectives

By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:

  1. Define desktop publishing
  2. State the purpose of desktop publishing
  3. Identify types of DTP software
  4. Design a publication
  5. Edit a publication
  6. Format a publication
  7. Print a publication

Introduction

You may have seen a card such as a wedding invitation card or read a newspaper, a magazine and a book.

Have you ever wondered how these documents are created? The process of creating these documents is known as publishing.  When a computer is used in all stages of publishing to produce quality documents, the process is referred to a desktop publishing.  A DTP program is an advanced word processing program with the ability to integrate text, graphics, pictures, styles and advanced formatting


Purpose of Desktop Publishing Software

Desktop Publishing Software has gained popularity in the printing and publishing industry. It has the ability to produce quality and fancy documents. The popularity of Desktop software is based on its ability to manipulate graphics, text and photographs. The main purpose of DTP software, therefore includes ability to:
(i) Design graphics
(ii) Manipulate page layout designs and
(iii) Printing on small scale and large scale


Designing a publication

With a desktop publisher, you are able to design a page layout by setting consistent picture and object locations, dividing the page in a number of columns and creating layers. A layer can be viewed as an arrangement of objects on top of each other with the one on top being in the first layer. Example can be on one layer while graphical objects on another. Therefore the text layer can be manipulated separate from the graphical object layer. Example text moves separate from the object. You can make the graphical layer transparent in order to make the text in a layer behind the object visible.


Designing a Publication

Graphic design
Using DTP software, a typesetter can create and edit very complex text and graphical objects like pictures to the finest details.  Examples these are software that provides the user with ruler and ruler guides that can also be used to place an object in exactly the correct position. 


Printing oversized publications

You can create and print PageMaker publications as large as 1066.8mm by 1066.8mm). Most desktop printers, however, cannot print such large pages. If you want to print an oversized publication on your desktop printer, you can print each page of your publication in pieces, called tiles, and then trim and assemble those pieces. Alternatively, you can scale the publication to fit the available paper size.


Print an oversized publication (left), by creating tiles (center), or by scaling to fit (right).

Types of Publishing Software

Classification

There are two main DTP software specifically developed to create different designs for text and pictures. The two main classifications are:

  1. Layout based e.g. Adobe Pagemaker

  2. Graphic based e.g. Ms Publisher


Graphical Designs Software

Another set of programs are specifically designed to edit and format objects. Examples include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw and Harvard graphics.


Graphical Based

These set of programmes are specifically designed to edit and format objects.
Examples include Adobe Photoshop, Corel draw and Harvard graphics.


Pagemaker

For the purpose of these lessons, we shall use PageMaker for our illustrations because it is the most widely used DTP software for beginners:

DTP vary in design and formatting. For instance, the way we design a business card has different design layouts as compared to designing a newspaper.

Starting Adobe PageMaker



Screen Layout of PageMaker Application Window


Setting up a Publication

Document setup settings include

Page size

Refers to the different types of paper sizes supported by the selected printer.Common paper sizes include A3, A4, and A5 among other sizes


Dimension

These are the custom paper sizes. (When page size of your choice is not provided).

Orientation

The layout of paper which can either be Tall (Portrait)



or wide( landscape)



Options: This includes double sided, facing pages, adjust layout and restart page numbering. Double sided allows for the design of a front-back publication pages.

Margins:

The space from the edge of the paper to the printable area.Margins can be top, left and right as shown in this illustration

Editing

Editing in DTP is done using several tools. Among other available tools we have:

  1. Find and Replace tool
  2. Spelling tool






Printing a Publication

Electronic Mail

e-mail: this refers to the use of computers in sending and receiving messages i.e. text, sound, video and graphics

On-line meetings

This is two-way communication using electronic media such as chatting, group texting and blogging. In video-conferencing, cameras are used so that live pictures of people involved can be seen.





Types of Publishing Software

There are two main DTP software specifically developed to create different layout designs for text and pictures. The two main classifications are PageMaker and Ms Publisher.

Another set of programs are specifically designed to edit and format objects. Examples include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw and Harvard graphics.

  1. Adobe Page Maker
  2. Publisher
  3. CorelDraw
  4. InDesign
  5. Scribus

Graphic design
Using DTP software, a typesetter can create and edit very complex text and graphical objects like pictures to the finest details.  Examples these are software that provides the user with ruler and ruler guides that can also be used to place an object in exactly the correct position. 

Layout design

With a desktop publisher, you can design a page layout by setting consistent picture and object locations, dividing the page in a number of columns and creating layers. A layer can be viewed as an arrangement of objects on top of each other with the one on top being in the first layer. For instance, text can be on one layer while graphical objects on another. Therefore the text layer can be manipulated separate from the graphical object layer. For example, text moves separate from the object. In addition, you can make the graphical layer transparent in order to make the text in a layer behind the object visible.


Layout design

With a desktop publisher, you can design a page layout by setting consistent picture and object locations, dividing the page in a number of columns and creating layers. A layer can be viewed as an arrangement of objects on top of each other with the one on top being in the first layer. For instance, text can be on one layer while graphical objects on another. Therefore the text layer can be manipulated separate from the graphical object layer. For example, text moves separate from the object. In addition, you can make the graphical layer transparent in order to make the text in a layer behind the object visible.

Manipulating text  using the toolbox

Creating a publication from scratch

When creating a publication from scratch, you make basic design decisions in the Document Setup dialog box, which opens automatically when you choose File > New. For example, you can specify page size and the placement of page margins.
In PageMaker for Windows, you can also specify a printer so that PageMaker composes the publication accordingly.
The number of publications you can have open at once is limited by the amount of memory available.
To start a publication from scratch:
1 Start PageMaker, and choose File > New.
2 Specify options in the Document Setup dialog box, and then click OK.
Specify page layout details--number of text columns, page-numbering scheme, and the basic design of the publication--in the publication itself.

Editing a publication

Moving and resizing text objects

Editing a publication
Moving and resizing text objects
After you add text, you can adjust the size, shape, or location of text objects without affecting the order of text in the story or its formatting. In addition, you can combine text objects from different stories or break threaded text into separate text objects and stories.
To move a text object:
1 Position the pointer tool anywhere inside the text object and hold down the mouse button.
2 When the pointer changes, drag the text object to a new position.
If you click a text object and then pause slightly before dragging, you'll see the text as you move it, making it easy to position it accurately (left). Otherwise, you'll see the outline of the text object as you drag (right).
To resize a text object:
With the text object selected, click the pointer tool on a corner handle (for a text block) or any selection handle (for a text frame) and drag to resize the text object.
To break threaded text into a separate, unthreaded story:
Use the text tool to select the text to be separated from the story, and choose Edit > Cut.
Click an insertion point outside an existing text object to create a new text block, or click in an empty unthreaded frame, and choose Edit > Paste. The pasted text appears, but it is no longer threaded to the original story.
If the text you want to separate is in its own text frame with no other text, select the frame and choose Element > Frame > Break Threads. This does not break the flow in the remaining text frames in that thread.

Formatting a publication 

About formatting text

PageMaker provides several ways to apply character-level formatting, such as font and size, and paragraph-level formatting, such as alignment and indentation.How PageMaker applies formatting depends on what is selected when you choose options:
Pointer tool selected: Sets the publication's default type and paragraph specifications. If no publication is open, the changes apply to text you type in all new publications you open.
Text selected with text tool: Changes just the selected text or, for paragraph-level attributes, just the paragraphs selected.
Insertion point selected: Applies character-level formatting to new text you type at that point, and paragraph-level formatting to the paragraph containing the insertion point.
Using the Control palette to format text
When you are in story editor or use the text tool in layout view, the Control palette displays options that let you assign attributes to text. To open or close the Control palette, choose Window > Show Control Palette. The Control palette appears in front of the publication and story windows. You can move it by dragging the bar at the left edge of the palette.
Click an option to activate it, move from option to option by pressing Tab, or return to a previous option by pressing Shift+Tab.
The contents of the Control palette vary, depending on whether you select character or paragraph view:
In character view ( ), you can apply character attributes, such as font, size, or leading, to selected text.
In paragraph view ( ), you can apply paragraph styles, select alignment options, and set other paragraph attributes.

When you click the Control palette to select an option, PageMaker immediately -applies the option to the selected text. If you type a numeric value for an option, apply the new setting in any of these ways:
Press Tab to apply the change and move to the next Control palette option.
Press Enter (Windows) or Return (Mac OS) to apply the change and make the layout or story window active. (If you hold down the Shift key while pressing Enter or Return, the change is applied but the Control palette remains active.)
Click the Apply button ( ) at the left end of the Control palette.
Click any other option in the Control palette.
When you press a nudge button ( ), you adjust attributes in predefined increments. If you press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) while nudging, you multiply the nudge increment by ten.
NOTE: You can change the font, tracking, and paragraph-style Control palette options by typing a font, track, or style name. As you type, PageMaker compares the available options with the characters you're typing and displays the closest option in the text box. For example, when you type a T in the Font option, PageMaker might display "Tekton®," but when you type Ti, PageMaker would jump ahead to "Times."

Drawing and editing lines and shapes
PageMaker drawing tools let you create simple graphics (or frames to hold text or imported graphics) to which you can apply a stroke and fill. (If necessary, choose Window > Show Tools to display the toolbox.)
NOTE: You can double-click on the drawing tools to change default drawing attributes for the active publication.
Manipulating an object using the Control palette
The Control palette offers an alternative to manipulating an object manually. Because you can enter exact values, the Control palette lets you work precisely with graphics and text objects, and you can make several changes without switching to the toolbox or choosing commands.
If you prefer to manipulate an object manually, the Control palette can still help you work precisely. When visible, it provides immediate feedback about the object you are modifying, such as the exact position, size, or rotation angle.
Note: Two options, Skewing and Reflecting, are available only on the Control palette.
Grouping and ungrouping objects
You can combine several objects into a group so that the objects are treated as a unit. This allows you to move or transform a number of objects together. For example, you might group the objects in a logo design so that you can move and resize the logo as one unit.
Note: When you mask selected objects, PageMaker can automatically group them.
A group, when selected, appears with four handles at the corners that define the bounding box of all objects in the group. Individual objects within a group can be selected and modified. For example, you can reformat text within a text object that is grouped with an image.
To group objects:
1 Using the pointer tool, press Shift and select the objects to be grouped.
One or more of the objects you select can be a group, but if you select two or more groups, note that all selected objects (including those within groups) form a single, unnested group.
2 Choose Element > Group.
To select text or an individual object within a group:
1 Select the pointer tool (to select graphics or text objects), or the text tool (to edit text).
2 If selecting an object within the group, press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and select the object. To select text, click an insertion point in the text.
To ungroup objects:
1 Select the group.
2 Choose Element > Ungroup.
The objects retain the changes you made while the objects were grouped.
Locking objects
You can lock individual objects in place in order to help preserve the design of your pages through all stages of production. You can change the attributes of a locked object, provided the change does not affect the object's size or position. For example, you can change a color or fill applied to a locked object, but not its degree of rotation or its skewing angle. You cannot cut or delete a locked object without unlocking it first, but you can copy a locked object; it will be pasted as an unlocked object.
Although the position of a locked text block is fixed, the bottom windowshade handle expands downward or retracts upward if text is added, deleted, or resized. Text continues to flow through locked text objects, moving inline graphics that are in that text object; only the size and baseline shift of an inline graphic are locked.
The Apply button ( ) in the Control palette appears dimmed when the selected object is locked. The pointer changes to a lock icon ( ) when you try to move a locked item.

Cropping Graphics


When you import a graphic from another program or publication, you can crop parts of the graphic that you do not want to print by adjusting the size of its surrounding bounding box.
After you crop a graphic, you can control which portions of it appear in your publication by moving the graphic within the visible area. You cannot crop to resize the visible area of locked objects, but you can change what portion of the image shows within the cropped area.
To save printing time, crop graphics before you import them into PageMaker.
If you crop an imported graphic and later relink to a different graphic, select the Retain Cropping Data option in the Place Document or Link Info dialog box (depending on whether you are replacing or relinking the graphic). Otherwise, PageMaker imports the entire graphic to fit within the cropped area, which can distort the graphic.
The Retain Cropping Data option applies only to objects you replace or relink using linking options in PageMaker. PageMaker automatically retains cropping information when you are working with OLE-linked or OLE-embedded graphics and Mac OS edition files, and also when you relink to a file that PageMaker could not find while opening or printing your publication.
Note: If you crop an inline graphic with the Control palette, you can only crop from the center. To crop from any other point, use the cropping tool in the toolbox.
NOTE: If you are printing to a PostScript printer, cropped draw-type PICT files may not produce the desired results. When saving draw-type graphics in Mac OS, select the EPS option whenever possible.
To crop a graphic using the cropping tool:
1 Select the cropping tool () from the toolbox, and select the graphic that you want to crop.
2 Position the cropping tool so that a handle shows through the center of the tool.
3 Hold down the mouse button to turn the cropping tool into a two-way arrow, and drag until only the part of the graphic you want in your publication remains. To show more of the graphic, drag away from the center of the graphic.
4 To move the graphic within the frame, position the cropping tool at the center of the graphic and hold down the mouse button. (In Windows, hold down the left mouse button.)
5 When the hand appears, drag until you see the part you want to appear in your publication. Then release the mouse button.

Steps for a publication setup


1.To set up a publication, follow this procedure.


2. Click on the file menu.


3. Click on document setup.


4. Select the page setup option. Manipulate the page size to A4 page orientation to portrait.Options to Facing pages and all margins to 1 inch .


5. Click on the OK button to show the document setup.

6. Enter information in the respective columns of the school newsletter with appropriate subtitles and text.


Enhancing the Appearance of a Publication

To enhance the appearance of a publication, one is allowed to apply the formatting features. Formatting a publication means applying special attributes to text, graphical objects and pages to make them attractive to the eye. There are three types of formatting namely:

    Text formatting which includes

    : Font sizing, Bolding and italicizing, Adjusting picture brightness,hanging case and drop cap, Paragraph Formatting

    which include: Indents or tabs Page Formatting

    which includes: Column guides, Page numbering, Column breaks and page insertion, Headers and footers






Desktop Publishing

 

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