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The surrounding in which we live in, is known as the environment. It is important to keep our surroundings clean so as to prevent illnesses and the spread of diseases.


Objective

By the end of the lesson you should be able to explain the concept environmental hygiene.


Free drainage

It is a method of disposing water anywhere in the compound.
Click on the PLAY button to view the video


Open Drainage

It is a method of disposing water by directing it into gutters or a simple trench dug on the ground. The trench can also be well constructed with materials such as cement, plastic or metal.



An Open Drain

Concealed drainage

In this type of drainage, water is drawn away from the house through pipes and covered drains.

Definition of Drainage

Drainage is the removal of water from houses and buildings such as rain water and waste water. Stagnant water around houses and buildings is a health hazard. It is therefore important to draw it away appropriately.

Types of Drainage

  • Free drainage
  • Open drainage
  • Concealed

Objective

By the end of the lesson you should be able to identify different types of drainage.











Malaria
Malaria is caused by a parasite which is spread by the anopheles mosquito.

Typhoid
Typhoid is caused by a bacteria found in urine or faeces.

Cholera
Cholera is caused by a bacteria found in contaminated water and food.

Dysentery
Dysentery is caused by protozoa (amoeba) found in human faeces.

Scabies
Scabies is caused by mites found in places where there is poor personal hygiene.

Bilhazia
Bilhazia is caused by parasitic snails found in fresh water.

Ringworms
Ringworms are caused by fungi which affects the skin.

Tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria which affects different parts of the body such as the lungs.



Introduction

Communicable diseases are those that are easily passed on from person to person or from host to person. A host refers to a carrier of disease causing organisms (germs). The common communicable diseases are:


Click on each of the diseases to view the causes.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • State the common communicable diseases.

  • Identify causes of common communicable diseases.

Mode of transmission of dysentery, typhoid and cholera

One common transmission mode of dysentery, typhoid and cholera is through contaminated water.

Signs and symptoms
Dysentery


  • Severe abdominal pains
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dehydration

Cholera


  • Violent vomiting
  • Acute diarrohea
  • Severe abdominal pains
  • Dehydration

Typhoid


  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • Headaches
  • General body weakness

  • Loss of appetite

Prevention and Control of Dysentery, Cholera and Typhoid

  • Practice proper disposal of human waste
  • Treat water for domestic use
  • Observe proper hygiene practices

  • Ensure regular medical checkups for food handlers

Scabies

Scabies is a skin disease which manifests itself in form of rashes which form blisters and sores.

Signs and symptoms

  • Itchy skin
  • Rashes which form blisters and sores


A Person suffering from Scabies

Ringworms

This is a skin disease which manifests itself in form of whitish round ring(s) on the infected area.

Signs and symptoms

  • Itching of the infected areas
  • Whitish round ring(s) on the infected area
  • Loss of hair on the infected area


A Child suffering from Ringworms

Skin diseases

Some skin diseases are contracted through body contact, improper hygiene and by sharing personal items. These include:

  • Scabies
  • Ringworms

Prevention and Control of Skin Diseases

  • Practice personal hygiene;
  • Avoid sharing personal items such as, combs,clothes and many others;
  • Disinfect / sterilize personal items occasionally;
  • Seek medical attention.

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