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World Wars

In form 3 we learnt about the scramble and partition of Africa. In this topic we will discuss the 1st and 2nd world wars. War refers to fighting between two or more conflicting parties. A world war is a war that is fought between many countries in different parts of the world, usually over long periods of time. We shall also discuss the League of Nations established to bring peace after the First World war.

Soldiers during World war2

World Wars

In form 3 we learnt about the scramble and partition of Africa. In this topic we will discuss the 1st and 2nd world wars. War refers to fighting between two or more conflicting parties. A world war is a war that is fought between many countries in different parts of the world, usually over long periods of time. We shall also discuss the League of Nations established to bring peace after the First World war.


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;


1. Define the term war


2. Define the term world war


3. Discuss the causes of the first world war


4. Describe the course of the first world war


5. Discuss the impacts of the first world war


World War 1

In this lesson we shall learn about the world war 1. World war 1 was fought between 1914 to 1918. Its was fought between the allied forces and the central powers. The allied forces comprised of:


1. Britain


2. France


3. Russia


4. U.S.A

The central powers included;


1.Germany


2.Turkey


3. Bulgaria


4. Austria


5. hungary

In order to understand the causes of the World War 1, it is important to understand how Europe was divided before the out break of the war. The map provided gives these details.

Causes of World War 1

Causes of World War 1

Several the factors led to the outbreak of the First World War. These causes were both long term and immediate


1. Economic rivalry due to the need to acquire raw material and markets created tension among European powers


2. The need for colonies created friction and mistrust among European powers


3. Disputes over morocco intensified enemity between Britain and Germany and France


4. Arms race led to mistrust between European powers


5. The system of alliances created tension between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente

6. France wanted to revenge her defeat which she suffered during the Franco-Prussian war

7. The need by nationalities in the Balkans to be free from Turkish rule who were supported by European powers

8. The assassination of the arch duke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo led to outbreak of the war


Course of World War 1

The First world war was fought between 1914-1918. It followed the following course;


1. The tension between Austria, Hungary and Serbia sparked off the war. Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July1914.


2. Russia mobilized her forces in support of Serbia on 1st August 1914.


3. Germany declared war on Rusia and France on August 3rd 1914.


4. Britain declared war on Germany 4th August 1914.


5. The war was fought on three major fronts

a) the Western Front

b) the Eastern Front and

c) the War at Sea.

6. Germany attacked Western powers who included Britain and France before attacking Russia with the support of Turkey and Bulgaria.

7. In 1917 U.S.A. joined the Allied forces and in the following year, the war came to an end.

One might wonder why USA had remained neutral untill 1917. A number of reasons explain USA took the isolitionist policy upto 1917. Some of these reasons were;


1. The isolationist policy in international affairs, where USA isolated herself from the European affairs as demanded by the Monroe doctrine of 1823.


2. U.S.A. feared an outbreak of Civil War back home because of citizens of German decent.


3. U.S.A. was benefiting from the War by selling arms to both sides.


4. U.S.A's interests had not been interfered with by the War until 1917 when the Germans sunk a U.S.A. ships in the Atlantic Ocean.

Machines used at war

Effects of World War 1

What then were the effects of the world war 1? The First World War had several effects:


1. There was loss of life and property .


2. It led to creation of new states for example Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland.


3. Huge sums of money was used during the War which led to poverty and slowed the pace of industrialization.


4. It led to the emergence of U.S.A. as a super power.


5. It led to the formation of the League of Nations.

6. The Nursing profession was born

Effects of war

Prior Knowledge

In the previous lesson, we discussed World War 1 and learnt about its long term causes. We also learnt about the immediate causes of the war, its course and the impact, which included the formation of the League of Nations.

Part of the soldiers who fought in the war.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;


1. Explain the reasons for the formation of the league of nations


2. Describe the organization of the league of nations


3. Explain the problems that faced the league of nations


League of Nations

In this lesson we will discuss the League of Nations.This was the first international organization to be established after the world war 1. It was established in January 1920 with headquarters at Geneva in Swirtzerland.

Map of Switzerland, showing Geneva, headquarters of League of Nation.

Aims of the League of Nations

There are a number of reasons that led to the formation of the League. Some of them include;


1. Maintain international peace and prevent another world war


2. Encourage international cooperation and arbitrate conflicts between countries


3. Guarantee sovereignity of world countries whether small or big


4. Improve the living standards of people throughout the world


5. Combating diseases and controlling drug trafficking

6. Sorting out predicament of displaced persons after the war

Structure of the League of Nations

Structure of the League of Nations

Inorder to understand the organisation of the League, we will discuss its structure. The League of Nations was made up of five organisations as follows:

A. GENERAL ASSEMBLY
This was made up of representatives from all member countries throughout the world. The members met once a year at the headquarters to deliberate on issues threatening international peace

B. COUNCIL
This was made up of nine countries. Five permanent and four non permanent members. The council met three times a year to implement decisions by the general assembly. The permanent members were the victorious countries in world war 1, i.e. Britain, Japan, France, USA and Italy.

C. SECRETARIAT
This was the administrative organ or the civil service of the league of nations. The organ was headed by a secretary general appointed for a renewable five year term. The main responsibility of the organ was the day today running of the organization.

D. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
This was the principal judicial organ of the league of nations based at the Haque-Netherlands and made of fifteen judges from different nationalities, races and religions throughout the world.

E. THE COUNCIL OF MANDATED TERRITORIES
This organ was in charge of the former colonies of Germany that were taken over by other European powers and colonized on behalf of league of nations until when they could be mature enough for independence

Performance of the League of Nations

The League of Nations had a number of achievements. Some of them include;


1. League of Nations established International Labour organization (ILO) which was able to improve labour conditions worldwide


2. Through International Health organization, it helped combat diseases and epidemics


3. Successfully arbitrated in conflicts between several countries eg Greece and Bulgaria, Sweden and Finland


4. Established the International Court of Justice that dealt with International crimes


5. The organization helped to eradicate slavery eg by setting up the permanent slavery commission in 1932

6. Helped war reconstruction in various countries such as Austria and Hungary

Challenges of the League of Nations

In its operations, the League of Nations faced a number of challenges which include;


1. Lack of finances. Some members never paid their contributions


2. She was not a super power but an association of nations, so most decisions depended on the goodwill of the members


3. Never had a police force or army to enforce her decisions or resolutions


4. New super powers, USA and USSR were not members


5. Veto power held by some of the members gave them more authority to make decisions on behalf of the others

6. Economic sanctions which was the main weapon used by the league of nations never worked because many states were non members


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;


1. Explain the causes of the Second World War


2. Describe the course of the World War II


3. Discuss the results of World War II


World War II

In this lesson, we shall discuss the causes, course and the results of the World War 2. This is a war that took place between 1939 and 1945. It involved two rival groups. These were the Allied forces which consisted of Britain, France and the USA. The other group was the Axis forces which was made of Germany, Italy and Japan.

Soldiers in the World war 2

Causes of World War II

There were Several factors that contributed to the occurrence of World War II. These include;


1. The violation of the Treaty of Versailles


2. Weak League of Nations


3. Hitler's Ambition


4. Economic Problems


5. Growth of Nationalism

6. Rise of Dictators eg. Benito Mussolini of Italy , Stalin of Russia

7. Policy of Appeasement

8. Formation of Alliances

9. Territorial violations

10.Arms Race

Adolf Hitler

Causes of World War II

There were Several factors that contributed to the occurrence of World War II. These include;


1. The violation of the Treaty of Versailles


2. Weak League of Nations


3. Hitler's Ambition


4. Economic Problems


5. Growth of Nationalism

6. Rise of Dictators eg. Benito Mussolini of Italy , Stalin of Russia

7. Policy of Appeasement

8. Formation of Alliances

9. Territorial violations

10.Arms Race

Adolf Hitler

Causes of World War II

Adolf Hitler

Course of World War II

From the conversation, we have learnt that, the 2nd World War broke out in 1939 between two rival groups, that is, the allied forces against the axis forces. It ended in 1945 after the bombing of two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


Course of World War II

To understand the course of the World War 2, listen to the conversation between a student and a teacher.

Student: What are some of the major events in the second world war?

Teacher: That a good question. The events of World War 2 involved;

1, In 1939 German invaded Poland and sparked off the war.


2. In the same year, Britain and France declared war on Germany.


3. In 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway.


4. In 1941, Germany invaded the Sovient Union

. 6. In 1942, the Allied troops landed in Algeria and Morocco.

7. In 1943, Italy declared war on Germany.

8 In 1944, the Allies liberated France from Germans and Belgium from central powers.

9. In 1945, USA dropped atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki which marked the end of 2nd World War.

Student: How did the Atomic bomb end the war?

Teacher; This is an interesting question. The Atomic bomb had very devastating effects on Japan. For instance very many lives were lost and thousands were injured. As a result of that Japan surrendered unconditionary on 15th August 1945 bring an end to the war.

Student; Thank you teacher. You have made it very clear.

From the conversation, we have learnt that, the 2nd World War broke out in 1939 between two rival groups, that is, the allied forces against the axis forces. It ended in 1945 after the bombing of two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


Effects of World War II

The World War II had devastating Social, Economic and Political consequences in Europe and other world countries. They included the following;

SOCIAL


1. Massive loss of lives


2. Widespread suffering


3. Displacement of people


4. Outbreak of infectious diseases


5. Change in the status of women

6. Formation of European Economic Cooperation

ECONOMIC


1. Slow economic development


2. Unemployment


3. Destruction of property


4. Developments in engineering


5. Rise in debts

6. Formation of European Economic Cooperation

 

POLITICAL


1. Partition of Germany


2. Emergence of Super Powers namely USA and USSR


3. Rise of Nationalism in Asia and Africa


4. Establishment of Communist Government


5. Growth of Military Technology

6. Formation of UNO.


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