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Welcome to form one Agriculture

This is the introduction to secondary school agriculture

Agriculture CD has been compiled with a view to accomplishing two fundamental objectives,

1.The learners should develop basic principles of agricultural production relevant to Kenya in general, and specifically to their own environments.

2. Learners should be involved in practicals which aim at assisting them to acquire useful agricultural skills. 

Therefore, it is highly recommended that learners be involved in practical work for actual agricultural production.

Affective domain objectives in agriculture are as important as those in cognitive and psychomotor domains. However, they must not be seen as achievable at the end of each single topic.

They are long term objectives and are set out in the general rather than specific objectives. The teacher must not forget them in teaching and in assessment.

 

The CD covers:

  • Introduction to agriculture,
  • Factors influencing agriculture,
  • Farm tools and equipment,
  • Crop production (land preparation)
  • Water supply, irrigation and drainage,
  • Soil fertility (organic manures)
  • Livestock production (common breeds)
  • Agricultural economics (basic concepts and farm records).

These topics are distributed throughout the form one course.

 

An attempt has been made to arrange the topics in a logical sequence. However, due to different ecological zones and weather patterns in the country,you are advised to take into account these differences when working with the CD. 

It is highly recommended that a crop museum be established in each school. 

Students should also be encouraged to plant suitable trees in their schools and label them using common and botanical names for each treeto facilitate good foundation knowledge of plants uses.

You are encouraged to harvest rain water from the roof catchments, hold it in reservoirs and use it for irrigation and for livestock, among other uses.

Rain water harvesting does not only avail cheap water, but also prevents soil erosion and undermining of building foundations.


 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

Introduction to Agriculture

The illustration below helps you to explain the importance of agriculture in Kenya.

Why should you study agriculture?

Find out the opportunities that are available in agricultural sector.

In the video see some of the activities carried out in the agricultural industry.





In 2006 almost 75 percent of working Kenyans made their living on the land, compared with 80 percent in 1980. About one-half of total agricultural output is non-marketed subsistence production.Agriculture is also the largest contributor to Kenyas gross domestic product (GDP). In 2005 agriculture, including forestry and fishing, accounted for about 24 percent of GDP, as well as for 18 percent of wage employment and 50 percent of revenue from exports.

Agriculture is largest source of foreign exchange revenue.

 

Branches of agriculture

This lesson activities will help you know more about branches of agriculture

 

 

Glossary

Agricultural engineering: Application of scientific principles to design, construction and maintenance of agricultural tools and equipment.

Apiculture: Breeding and rearing of bees

Entomology: braches of science concerned with the study of insects.

 

Ecology:      Is the study of the relationship between living organism and their environment.

Genetics:      Is the study of Inheritance

Pathology:    Is a branch of medicine concerned with the cause, origin, transmission,    symptoms and control of disease.

Pedology:    Is the study of soils

Introduction to Agriculture

Branches of agriculture

Lesson objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • state the four main branches of agriculture
  • describe the four branches of agriculture
  • demonstrate an appreciation for the wide and varied opportunities in agriculture

 

Introduction to Agriculture

What is agriculture?

The term agriculture is derived from two latin words ager= Field and cultura= Cultivation

which simply means "field cultivation" for the purpose of producing farm produce.

Farm produce include both crops and livestock produce.

Agriculture being a dynamic industry it continues widening the scope and meaning of agriculture

Today agriculture can be defined as the art and science of crop and livestock production .




How is agriculture an art and a science?
Agriculture as an art entails:

Land tilling



This Involves preparation of land for planting

 

Measuring land size



An art of measuring land size in planning its utilisation

 

Construction of farm structures



An art of making good farm structures as a good practice in livestock rearing

 

Machine operations



An art in maintaining farm machinery as a good practice in production technology improvement

Harvesting of crops



An art of improving production technology in harvesting of crops

 

Livestock feeding



An art of handling livestock when feeding them


Packaging agricultural produce



An art of handling agricultural produce during marketing

Branches of Agriculture Classification

 

There are four main branches of agriculture namely:

  • Crop production,
  • Livestock production,
  • Agricultural economics ,
  • Agricultural engineering.

Crop production is a branch of agriculture that deals with growing of crops

Livestock production



Livestock production is a branch of agriculture that deals with rearing of animals

 

Farm tools and machinery



Agriculture engineering is a branch of agriculture that deals with use and maintenance of farm tools, machinery and structures.

 

Marketing agricultural produce



Agricultural economics is a branch of agriculture which deals with the utilization of scarce resources. It aims at maximizing output while minimizing costs

Crop production

What is crop production?

Crop production (Arable farming) is the growing/production of crops on cultivated land.

classification of crops

Field crops

a) Annual crops are like cereals and pulses e.g garden peas.



Field of growing garden peas

b)

Perrenial crops are like Coffee, Sugarcane and

Tea



Field of mature Tea

 

Field crops



Growing of sugarcane and tea among other field crops

 

Horticultural crops



(i) Pomology.

(ii) Olericulture.

(ii) Floriculture.

Pomology



Pomology is the growing of fruits

 

Olericulture



Olericulture

is the growing of vegetables such as French beans, Cabbages and Tomatoes.

Floriculture



Floriculture is the growing of flowers such as Tuberose,Roses and Carnations among other crops

 

Livestock production

Livestock production involves the rearing of animals like sheep, goats, pigs, cattle among other animals

Sheep



Sheep rearing

for mutton and wool production

 

Goats



Goats rearing

for meat, milk and mohair production

 

 

Camels



Camel rearing

for transport, meat and milk production

 

Pigs



Pig rearing for meat (Bacon and Pork) production

 

Beef animals



Cattle Ranching for meat production

 

Apiculture (Bee Farming)



Bee Keeping for honey and wax production

 

Aquaculture



Fish farming for white meat production

 


Poultry farming



Chicken rearing for egg and meat

production

among other uses.

Agricultural Economics

What is agricultural Economics?

Agricultural economics deals with utilization of scarce resources in production

Agricultural Economics includes: 

Agricultural Marketing which involves packaging vegetables using market specifications.

Farm Management



Farm Management in hilly land must be justified by economics of production.

Production Economics



Farm produce of the required quality

 

Farmers Organizations




Assist farmers in improving their yields

and marketing at reduced cost

Agricultural Engineering

Agricultural Engineering involve use and maintenance of farm tools, machinery and structures.



Farm equipment and Machinery

 

Farm structure.



Green house used for crop production

 

Workshop equipment



Tools and equipment

used in repair and maintenance

 

Farming system

The previous lesson you covered the following branches of agriculture.

Livestock farming, Crop farming, Economics and Engineering.

This sub topic will cover the farming systems practices in Kenya. Farming system is the way a farmer organizes, plans and uses the available resources to suit all the above enterprises in relationship to each other. Resources include:- Land, Rainfall,Temperature, labour among others

The agricultural sector continues to dominate Kenyas economy, although only 15-17 percent of Kenyas total land area has sufficient fertility and rainfall to be farmed, and only 7 or 8 percent can be classified as first-class land.

Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Kenya

 

Glossary

Mixed farming 

It entails the growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same farm

Nomadic pastoralism - Is the moving of animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and water.

Shifting cultivation - Farming on a piece of land continuously until it is exhausted after which the farmer moves to a more fertile land.

Organic farming - Growing of crops and rearing of animals without using agricultural chemicals.

Agroforestry - Involves growing of trees and crops and keeping of animals on the same piece of land.

 

Farming Systems and Methods

Lesson objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

(i) define a farming system,

(ii) identify the four main farming systems in Kenya,

(iii) describe the four farming systems practiced in Kenya,

(iv) state all the advantages and disadvantages of each farming system,

(v) state five methods of farming,

(vi) define all methods of farming,

(vii) outline the advantages and disadvantages of all methods of farming.

Farming Systems and Methods Practised in Kenya

 

Farming systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farming Systems Practised in Kenya

What is farming system?

Farming system is the organisation of the farm and all the enterprises in relationship to each other. 

Types of farming systems

  • Extensive farming 
  • Intensive farming

Extensive system



Farming System which

involves farming in a large piece of land using very little input to produce the desired products. 

Small scale farming



Type of farming which involves growing of crops and raising of livestock in small pieces of land for maximum yield per unit area, through the use of high levels of labour and capital by application of modern farming technologies

 

Intensive farming system



Farming system which involves the commercial production of large quantities of crops and livestock on large farm.

Large scale

 

Type of farming which involves growing of crops and rearing of animals on large piece of land applying modern farming technologies.

Introduction to farming system

A farming system refers to the way farm resources are organised and utilised.

The most important resources determining a farming system are:

  • Land
  • Capital
  • Labour
  • Management
  • Time

Most farmers in Kenya utilise these resources to organise their farming

systems

 

Types of farming systems

Extensive farming system:-

 Involves the commercial production of large
quantities of crops and livestock on large farms using low investment.
Common in marginal areas.

Intensive farming system:-

Involves the growing of crops and raising of
livestock on small pieces of land for maximum yields and requires high
capital, high labour investment and low labour per unit area. In this
system mechanisation is practised. Common in medium to high altitude areas.

Small scale farming :-

Involves growing of crops and rearing of animals
on small piece of land.

Large scale farming:-

Involves the commercial production of large quantities of crops and livestock on large farm, land size usually above 20 hectares.

 

Intensive Farming System

Intensive farming:-

(Deep litter Chicken rearing system).



This involves the growing of crops and raising of livestock on small pieces of land for maximum yields and requires high capital and high labour investment per unit area.

 

Advantages of intensive farming

  • There is maximum utilization of land
  • Can be practiced in densely populated area
  • Results in high income and high net revenue for the farmer
  • Gives high yield and high quality produce per unit area
  • Easier to supervise as it is confined in a small area

Disadvantages of intensive farming

  • High initial capital is required
  • High labour costs are incurred
  • Requires a high level of skills and management
  • Pests and disease attack can result to high losses
  • Ineffective management leads to big loses.

 

Small scale farming System



Livestock rearing



Goat rearing in Small scale unit

 

Advantages of small scale farming

- Low capital investment 

- Low labour requirement  

- Maximum land usage.

- More organized and predictable

Disadvantages of small scale farming

- Require good planning and farm management skills.

- Marketing of produce is difficult

 - Production is usually low

Crop farming



Growing Bananas and Tea production

in Small scale unit

Large Scale Farming

Tea plantation

 

Advantages large scale farming

  • It results in high yields
  • Economics of scale results to increased profits
  • Creates employment while mechanization is not possible.
  • Promotes foreign exchange earning for the country

Disadvantages large scale farming

  • High capital investment required
  • A lot of labour input required
  • High level management is needed for realising good profit
  • Heavy losses can result in the event of pests and diseases out breaks

Extensive farming system

Extensive farming system

- Involves farming in large piece of land using very little input to produce the desired products. 

 

Advantage of extensive system 

  • The owner usually possess the land tittle deed which can be used to secure loans.
  •  The owner can lent part of the land to get income 
  • Very little inputs required 

Disadvantage 

  • Output per unit area is low
  • Tenants cannot plant perennial crops 
  • Sometimes land may remains iddle
  • Difficult to supervise
  • Incase of outbreak, difficult to control diseases and pests

Extensive Nomadic Pastoralism



Movement of livestock in search for pasture in a large area

Advantages of Extensive Nomadic Pastoralism



  • Require less labour input 
  • Huge capital investment
  • Does not require high level of management skills 
  • Proper use of marginal land

Disadvantages

  •  

    Require large area of land
  • Output per unit area is low
  • Difficult to supervise
  • Incase of outbreak, difficult to control diseases and pests.

Factors Influencing Methods of farming

Methods of farming

  • Mixed farming,
  • Shifting cultivation,
  • Organic farming,
  • Agro forestry,


  • Nomadic pastrolism.

Methods of farming are influenced by the following factors

  • Socio-cultural values of the community.
  • Farmers tastes and preferences.
  • Resources available to the farmer.
  • Education and technological development.

 

Socio-cultural values of the community.



Subsistence mixed farming dominates most of small scale farming

 

Farmers tastes and preferences.



Farmers produce (tea being graded)

 

Amount of resources available to the farmer.



Farmers must access all enterprise requirement and select the best inputs.

 

Map of areas where the farming methods are practiced

Note you can use the back botton to navigate in the methods practiced

Farming Methods Practised in Kenya

Some methods of farming practised in Kenya include

  • Mixed farming,
  • Nomadic pastrolism,
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Organic farming
  • Agroforestry
Mixed farming



Involves growing crops and keeping animals on same piece of land.

 

Nomadic pastrolism



Moving of animals from one place to another in search of fresh water and pasture

 

Agroforestry



Involves growing of leguminous trees and crops and keeping animals on same piece of land.

Shifting cultivation 

I

nvolves farming on a piece of land continuously until it is exhausted after which the farmer moves to a more fertile ground.

 

Farming Methods

Agroforestry

Agroforestry - Involves growing of trees and crops and keeping of animals on the same piece of land at the same time.

Suitable tree species for agroforestry

  • Leucaena leucocephala 
  • Gravillea robusta
  • Calliandra catothrysus
  • Mangifera indica
  • Sesbania sesban
  • Lantana camara
  • Cajanus cajan

 

Advantages of Agroforestry 

  • Saves labour since some operations can be done at once for both plants and trees
  • Gives higher combined yield
  • Provide wide variety of agricultural produce
  • Reduces the risks of total failure
  • Crops benefit from nitrogen fixing trees.
  • Trees help in holding the soil firmly
  • Some trees act as livestock fodder.


  • Provides a wider variety of agricultural produce.

Disadvantages of Agroforestry

  •  

    Mechanization is difficult.
  •  Use of pesticides and fertilizer may be difficult.
  • Productivity may suffer because the skills for managing the different trees and crops may be lacking.

Crops in Agroforestry

Livestock in Agroforestry



Livestock rearing under coconut trees

 

Shifting cultivation

Shifting cultivation



 Farming on a piece of land continuously until it is exhausted after which the farmer moves to a new more fertile land.

Advantages of shifting cultivation.

  • It has low capital requirement
  • There is no pests and diseases build-up
  • Soil structure is maintained
  • No land disputes as land ownership is not individualized.

Disadvantages of shifting cultivation.

  • Total yields per unit are is low
  • Farmers have no incentive to develop land and conserve water and soil
  •  

    A lot of time is wasted when the farmer is shifting and building structures.
  •  

    Not applicable in areas of high population density or where there is high population increase.

Organic Farming

Organic farming is a method in which crops are grown and animals reared
without use of artificial fertilizers or chemicals for pest control.

Management of soil in Organic farming

 

Advantages and disadvantages of organic farming.

Advantages

  • Makes use of locally available materials
  • Used to improve the soil structure
  • More affordable and cost effective
  • Better land sustainability for future use
  • Reduces chemical toxicity

Disadvantages

  • Labour instesive


  • Time required to reach the standards

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