KCSE ONLINE

Esoma Online Revision Resources

Livestock Breeds - Agriculture Form 1

Livestock Breeds

There are various species of animals kept in the farm which includes cattle, camels, bees, fish, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and rabbits.

Type of animal refers to the purpose for which an animal is kept. For example animal kept for eggs, milk or wool.
The term breed refers to a group of animals having the same characteristics and a common origin.

Livestock breed refers to all animal selected and reared for production in the farm.

Most of the farmers in Kenya select breeds to keep from the above types of livestock species

See the video below to appreciate livestock practices.







Glossary

Terms used on livestock

Bull:- mature male cattle

Bullock:- Mature castrated male cattle

Steer:- Young castrated male cattle

Cow:- Mature female cattle

Heifer:- Young female cattle between weaning and first calving.

Calf:- Young one of cattle

Piglet:- A young pig from birth to weaning

Gilt:- A young female pig from weaning upto first parturition

Boar:- A mature male pig

Chick: - Newly hatched bird from one day to eight weeks.

Pullet:- Young female bird from eight weeks to the point of lay.

Cockerel:- Young male bird from eight weeks to maturity.

Hen:- Mature female bird

Cock:- Mature male bird

Layer: - Bird kept for egg production

Broiler:- Bird kept for meat production

Capon:- Bird which has been rendered sterile

Ram:- mature male sheep

Ewe: - Mature female sheep

Lamb: - A young one of a sheep

Hogget:- Young female sheep between weaning and service

Billy:- Mature male goat

Nanny:- Mature female goat

Kid: - Young one of goats

Kindling:- Young one of a rabbit

Buck:- Mature male rabbit

Doe:- Mature female rabbit

Breed:- a group of animals with similar characteristics and common origin.

Field trip

The teacher to take students out for a field trip at Kenya agricultural research institute nearest to you.

During the visit the students should do the following.

i.) List all the livestock breeds available within the station

ii.) List their origin

iii.) List other livestock breeds not within the station

iv.) Classify various livestock breeds according to their products.

After the visit student should write a report and hand in for marking

Guidelines for marking the report. -Teachers tips

Classification according to their products.

Exotic dairy cattle breeds

Indigenous beef cattle breeds

Dual purpose cattle breeds

Sheep meat breeds

Wool sheep breeds

Dairy goat breeds

Meatgoatbreed

Draught animals are used for trasportation and ploughing in the farms.

For example donkeys, camels and oxen.

Study the following parts of a donkey






Livestock Production (Common Breeds)

Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

  •  name the seven species of livestock
  • define the terms, livestock, breed and type
  • describe all breed characteristics
  • state the origin of all the breeds
  • classify all the breeds into types
  • name the external parts of all the livestock species.

Livestock Species(Common Breeds)

These species of livestock are covered in this lesson;

  • Cattle,
  • Camels,
  • Sheep,
  • Goats,
  • Pigs,
  • Poultry
  • Rabbits
  • Bees,
  • Fish.
  • NB See video next page to appreciate livestock species



Livestock Distribution in Kenya


Type of Livestock Species, Population and Their Products

Cattle population in 2006 was12.5 million

Produces Milk, meat among others

Goats population in 2006 was11.0 million

Produces Milk, Meat among others

Sheep population in 2006 was 8.0 million

Produces Wool, meat among others

Pigs population in 2006 was 330,000 thousand

Produces Pork, Bacon among others

Chicken population in 2006 was over 29 million

Produces Eggs, meat among others

Rabbits population in 2006 was 470,000 thousand

Produces Skin, Meat among others


Camels population in 2006 was 850,000 thousand

Produces Milk, Meat among others

Bees

Produces honey, wax among others

Fish

Produces white meat, oil, animal feed among others

The country produces livestock products worth Kshs 290 billion annually.

Livestock Production (Common Breeds)

Characteristics Exotic
Cattle Breeds

  • Have no humps
  • Intolerant to high temperatures
  • Susceptible to diseases
  • Fast growth rate
  • High production
  • Short calving intervals
  • Cannot walk long distances

Exotic Cattle Breeds


Exotic Cattle Breeds population was around 3.5 million in 2006

Indigenous Cattle


Indigenous Cattle Breeds population was around 9 million in 2006

General characteristic of indigenous cattle breeds

  • Have hump that store fat
  • Tolerant to high temperature
  • Tolerant to tropical diseases eg. Trypanosomiasis
  • Slow growth rate
  • Low production
  • Can walk for long distances
  • Can stay for long without water
  • Long calving interval

Livestock Breeds

Importance of livestock

Livestock products


 

Livestock products provide food to people e.g. meat, milk, eggs, honey and blood

Source of foreign exchange

Livestock products when exported provide foreign income used to import the inputs like fertilizers

Source of income when sold locally


Eggs are cheap source of proteins used to provide income to most farmers


Cultural values

Cultural values e.g. status symbol, social ceremonies and recreational activities are attractive to tourist and hence promoting agro-tourism .

Animal power


Animal power or draught power needed for pulling carts or ploughs in the farm.

Click the play button to view some of the livestock with above importance



Livestock Production (Common Breeds)

Parts of a Cow

CATTLE BREEDS

Characteristics of Dairy Cattle


  • Large and well developed udder
  • Udder is firmly attached and not pendulous
  • Teats are uniform size, well spaced and long
  • Large long and branching mammary veins
  • Large stomach
  • Good feeder
  • Good strong legs and well set hind quarters
  • Have a straight top line.
  • Long lean and smooth neck
  • Wedge or triangular-shaped when viewed from the sides

See video next page to appreciate cattle breeds

Examples of dairy cattle

Fresian (Holstein)

Origin
:- Holland
Colour
:- Black and white body
White forehead legs and switch.
Size
: - Average mature cows weigh 600-680Kg live weight
-Average mature bulls weigh 900-1000Kg live weight
- Average mature calves weigh 35-40Kg at birth.
Milk yield
:- 9000kg an average lactation of 305 days
- Butterfat content 3.5%
Temperament
: - Docile and poor grazers
- Tolerant to cold but not heat

Ayrshire

Origin:-
Scotland
Colour
:- Brown with white markings
Size: -
Average mature cows weigh 500Kg live weight
- Average mature bulls weigh 700kg live weight
- Average mature calves weigh 30 -35kg at birth.

Milk yield:-
6000kg lactation of 305 days
- Butter fat content 4%


Guernsey

Origin
: - Guernsey island (Coast of France)
Colour
: - Yellowish brown to almost red with white marking on the legs, face, girth and tail
Size
: - Average mature cows weigh 500kg liveweight
- Average mature bulls weigh 700kg liveweight
- Calves weigh 25 - 30Kg liveweight
Milk yield
: - 5000kg per lactation of 305 days, butter fat content 4.5-5.0%Temperament:- Quiet and easy to handle;Good grazers, fairly hardy and tolerate moderate heat


Jersey

Origin: - Jersey island in English channel
Colour
: - Light yellowish brown (fawn) to a shade of black.
Black eyes, tail switch and muzzle
Size
: - Average mature cows weight 450kg liveweight
-Average mature bulls weight 600kg liveweight and calves weight 20-25kg at birth
Milk yield
: - 4000kg per lactation of 305 days,butter fat content 5.53%
Temperament
:- Bulls are aggressive and vicious, Cows are nervous and sensitive
-Excellent grazers on poor pastures, resistant to high temperature

CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF CATTLE

  • Good foragers on poor pastures
  • Short legged
  • Breed regularly
  • High ability to convert feeds in fresh
  • Tolerance to high ambient temperature
  • Resistance to diseases as compared to dairy breeds.
  • Have square rumps and heavy quarters
  • Deep chest and girth
  • Grow fast and mature early
  • Have deep well flashed body
  • The body conformation is blocky, square or cylindrical appearances. 
  • The top and lower lines are almost straight.

Examples of the beef Cattle Breeds

Boran


Boran is one of the most common indigenous beef cattle.

Zebu


Boran and zebu ( Most important indigenous beef breeds) other breeds include Ankole, Bukendi, Maasai and Nandi cattle












CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF CATTLE

  • Good foragers on poor pastures
  • Short legged
  • Breed regularly
  • High ability to convert feeds in fresh
  • Tolerance to high ambient temperature
  • Resistance to diseases as compared to dairy breeds.
  • Have square rumps and heavy quarters
  • Deep chest and girth
  • Grow fast and mature early
  • Have deep well flashed body
  • The body conformation is blocky, square or cylindrical appearances. 
  • The top and lower lines are almost straight.

Examples of the beef Cattle Breeds

Boran


Boran is one of the most common indigenous beef cattle.


Zebu


Boran and zebu ( Most important indigenous beef breeds) other breeds include Ankole, Bukendi, Maasai and Nandi cattle


CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPROVED BORAN & ZEBU

  • Short neck
  • Broad head and muzzle
  • Straight and broad back
  • Loose skin having short fine hair
  • Short and straight horns or polled
  • Average liveweight (Cows 450 - 500kg) (and bull - 800kg)
  • Regular breeding ability
  • Can withstand drought and heat
  • Can walk for long distances in search of pasture and water
  • High quality meat
  • Has large hump that store fat to provide energy and water in times of starvation.
  • Resistance to tropical diseases eg. Tryponosomiasis
  • Good grazers a forager even on poor posture or shrubs

EXOTIC BEEF BREEDS

Aberdeen Angus 


Origin: - Scotland
Suited to highland areas only
Colour: - Black with long smooth coat
Shape: Cylindrical compact broad and deep
Size: - Mature bulls weigh 900kg liveweight
- Mature Cows weigh 720kg liveweight
- Poor breeder


Hereford

Origin: - England
Colour: - Deep red with white tail, legs, flanks hocks and brisket
Size: - Average mature bulls weigh 1000kg liveweight
- Average mature cows weigh 850kg liveweight
Shape- Beefy conformation with large hind quarters


Short horns

Origin: - north East England
Colour: - Red, roan or white
Size: - Average mature bulls weigh 800kg liveweight
Average mature cows weigh 600kg liveweight
Shape - Small body
- Fast growth rate
-Yellowish horns with black tips

Dual purpose breeds (both purposes)

The Dual purpose breeds include:-

Black australlorp, Rhodes island red, New Hampshire red
among others

Hybrids include:- Issa brown,Cornish, Sterling
among others

Characteristics of Dual purpose breeds

  • They provide high quality meat.
  • They have high conversion rate of feeds into meat
  • They grow fast
  • Hens lay few eggs
  • They go broody
  • They are heavier and bigger than layers

Black australlorp


Mature weight between 2-2.5 Kg.


Rhodes island red


Fast groth rate, mature weight between 2-3 Kg.

New Hampshire red

M
ature weight between 2-3.5 Kg.

Livestock Production (Common Goat Breeds)

Study the parts of a Goat


See video next page to appreciate goat breeds



Galla goat (also known as Boran, Somali goat, Samburu)
Origin:- Indigenous to Northern Kenya
Colour:- White hairs with black skin, nose, feet and under the tail
Size:- Mature buck weigh upto 40-50 kg liveweight
- Mature nanny weigh upto 25-30 kg liveweight
Temperament:- Docile and easy to handle
Production:- Good for meat production


Boer goat

Origin: -South Africa
Colour:- Mixed black and white with long hair and ears
Size:- Fast maturing

Anglo - Nubian goat
Origin:- North East Africa
Colour:- Mixed roan with white
Shape:- Long legs, polled and drooping ears
Production:- Mature nanny weigh 60-75 kg liveweight
-Goat for meat and milk production
-Can produce 1-2 litres of milk per day


Jamnapari goat
Origin: - India
Colour:- Ranges from white roan to black
Shape:- Horned, Ears are large and flopped
Production:- Mature nanny weigh 45-60kg liveweight
-Kept for meat production though can produce 1-1.5 litres for milk per day


Dairy goat breeds
Toggenburg
Origin:- Switzerland
Colour:- Brown with white patches
-White ears and white stripe on the face and neck
Shape:-Polled or horned. Horns in males are long and curved
-Erect ears pointed backwards long hair, face slightly dished and has
tassels on either side of the neck.


Cont...Toggenburg Production:- mature nanny weigh 40-50 kg liveweight
-Produces 2-3 litres of milk per day
-Butter fat content 3.5%
Temperament:-Suffer from heat stress resulting in poor appetite.


Saanen goats

Origin
:- Switzerland
Colour
:- White or creamy white
Shape
:- Usually polled
-Ears are erect and pointing forward
Production
:- Mature nanny weigh 50-80 kg liveweight
-Produces 2-3 litres of milk per day butterfat content 3.5%


Kenyan Alpine
Origin: - Germany
-Being used to upgrade the local breeds for milk production
Colour: - brown with black strip at the back
Shape: - Horned
Production: - Mature nanny weigh 50-60 kg liveweight produces 2-3 litres of milk per day


Livestock Production (Common Breeds)

Study the parts of a Camel


Species of camels

There are two species of camels, one single humped, its origin is Arabia and

its known as Dromedary,

Dromedary is the only breed kept in Kenya .

Bactrian has two humps and is from Central America .


Livestock Production (Common Breeds)

Parts of a Pig


See video next page to appreciate pig breeds




Pig breeds
Large white


Originated from Britain
-Widely kept for production of Pork
Shape and colour
- Long, large and white pig
- Skin may have few blue spots
-Snout is broad and slightly dished
-Ear are upright
Growth rate
- slow and weigh about 300 kg
-Boar weigh about 350 kg


Land race
Originated
from Denmark
-Commonly kept for bacon production
Shape
-long lean pig
-Has a straight snout and long ears drooping over the face
-Hams are deep and broad
-Weak legs
Grow rate
- has ability to put on large amount of lean meat quickly
Sows are prolific and docile

Berkshire
Origin
- England
Colour
-Black with white feet, face and tail switch
Shape
-Dished face and erect ears
Production
-Good producer of bacon.

Tam Worth

Origin
-England
Colour
- Red, varying from light to dark
Shape
- Has long legs
Production
- Good bacon producer
-Poor mothering ability with slow grow rate


Duroc Jersey Pig
Origin: Britain
Colour: Pure black
Shape: Long strong frame
Production: Sows produce large litters with good mothering ability
Fast growth and early maturing


Saddle back

Origin:- South of England
-Includes both Essex and wessex saddle back
Colour:- Black with white band that runs around the shoulders
Shape:- Body is long and curved
It has a straight snout and drooping ears
Production:- Excellent mothering ability
-Good for port and becon production
-Good forager

Livestock Production (Common Sheep Breeds)

Study the parts of Sheep



See video next page to appreciate sheep breeds



Sheep Breeds

Wool Sheep Breeds

Merino
Origin
:-North Coast of African d Spain
Colour
:- White face, mouth and nostril are pint
Shape
 -Have a drooping rump
-A lot of wool on the legs and face
-Long wool which is slow in shrinkage
-Rams have horns which grow in a spiral shape.
Production
- mature ram weigh 63-80kg liveweight
-Mature ewe weigh 49-57 kg liveweight
-Wool staple length 8-10 cm
-Lambing percentage 100%
Temperament
-Well developed flocking instinct
-Can survive on poor pastures
-Perform best in moderate rainfall areas with low temperatures

Mutton sheep breeds
Dorper

Developed in South Africa by cross breeding Dorset Horn and Black Head Persian
Colour:- White with black head and neck
Production:- Highly prolific with good growth rate Tolerant and harsh conditions
-Mature ram weigh 50-55 kg liveweight
-Mature ewe weigh 45-50 kg liveweight
-High quality carcass


Maasai Sheep

Indigenous breed of south West Kenya and N. Tanzania
Colour:- Red and brown or black with long legs
-Horns are small and pointed
Production:- Mature ram weigh 35 kg liveweight
-Mature ewe weigh 25 30 kg liveweight
-Matures early to produce quality mutton

Dual purpose sheep breeds

Corriedale

Colour-Open white face, with blackish spots
Production -Mature ram weigh 84-114kg liveweight
-Mature ewe weigh 57-84 liveweight
-Fleece weighs 5-5.5kg per shearing
-Lambing per centage 100-125% as a result of twinning
Temperament - Docile and hardy
Perform best in high rainfall areas.
NB. Other Dual purpose breeds are Romney Marsh and Hampshire down.


Livestock Production (Common Rabbits Breeds)

Study the parts of a Rabbit


See video next page to appreciate Rabbit breeds




Breeds of rabbits

New Zealand white


Keept for meat production. Mature weight 4-5.5 Kg.


California white


Kept for meat production. Mature weight 4.5 Kg.

Flemish Giant

Kept for meat production. Mature weight 6 Kg

Livestock Production (Common Chicken Breeds)
Study the parts of a Chicken

See video next page to appreciate Chicken breeds




Chicken breeds.

Chicken cross breeds are obtained by crossing the two pure breeds.

Poultry breeds are classified into main types according to the products they provide.

For example:-


  • Layers are kept for eggs
  • Broilers kept for meat
  • Dual purpose kept for both purposes.

There four categories of chicken breeds

Light breeds (layers)


Purposely kept for egg production and therefore referred to as layers.

LAYER BREEDS

Breeds of layers include:- Leghorns, Ancorna, Minorca, Exchequer among others

Characteristics of layers

  • Can lay upto 220 eggs per year
  • Light body with red and waxy combs
  • Active and exhibits high degree of cannibalism
  • Hens weigh 2kg and rarely go broody

Example of hybrid of light breeds include:-

White leghorn


Hybrids include:-Thorn bars 404, Hyline Stock, Thorn Bar 704, Shavers, Brown eggers
among others


Heavy breeds (broilers)

The heavy breeds include:-

Breeds include:- Light Sussex, Cornish white, Cornish Dark
among others

Characteristics of broilers

  • They provide high quality meat.
  • They have high conversion rate of feeds into meat
  • They grow fast
  • Hens lay few eggs
  • They go broody
  • They are heavier and bigger in size than layers and broilers.






Dual purpose Chicken breeds (both purposes)

The Dual purpose Chicken breeds include:-

Black australlorp, Rhodes island red, New Hampshire red
among others

Hybrids include:- Issa brown, Cornish, Sterling
among others

Characteristics of Dual purpose Chicken breeds

  • They provide high quality meat.
  • They have high conversion rate of feeds into meat
  • They grow fast
  • Hens lay few eggs
  • They go broody
  • They are heavier and bigger than layers

Black australlorp


Mature weight between 2-2.5 Kg.

Rhodes island red


Fast growth rate, mature weight between 2-3 Kg.

New Hampshire red

Mature weight between 2-3.5 Kg.

Order this CD Today to Experience the Full Multimedia State of the Art Technology!

For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Test the Sample e-Content link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer.

Sample Coursework e-Content CD

Other Goodies for KCSE ONLINE Members!

Coursework e-Content CD covers all the topics for a particular class per year and costs 1200/- ( Per Subject per Class ).

Purchase Online and have the CD sent to your nearest Parcel Service. Pay the amount to Patrick 0721806317 by M-PESA then provide your address for delivery of the Parcel. Alternatively, you can use BUY GOODS TILL NUMBER 827208 Ask for clarification if you get stuck.

Install ADOBE Flash Player for Best Results

For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Test the link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer.

Search

Subject Menu