Art Design Report
16.0 ART AND DESIGN (442)
The year 2010 KCSE Art and Design examination tested the application of knowledge, skills, concepts and attitudes fundamental to Art and Design activities. The subject was tested in three papers:
16.1 GENERAL CANDIDATES PERFORMANCE
2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010.
Table 19: Candidates
The following observations can be made from the table above:-
16.1.1 The candidature of 1076 in the year 2009 remain the same in the year 2010.
16.1.2 Performance of the subject has been declining as shown by the mean scores of 132.35 in 2008, 116.84 in 2009 and 114.01 in 2010
16.1.3 Overall performance in the year 2008 remains the best as evidenced by the high mean score of 132.35 as compared to mean score of 116.84 in the year 2009 and 114.01 in the year 2010.
The discussion below is based on a sample of randomly selected candidates scripts for the year 2010 KCSE Art and Design examination. Analysis of performance for each question was carried out to determine the questions that were poorly done. We shall therefore, discuss the questions in which the candidates performed poorly.
16.1 PAPER 1(442/1)
Study the drawing below
Paper 2 (442/2)
Paper 3 (442/3)
Overall Performance in Art and Design (442) for the last Four
Identify the two facial expressions conveyed by the drawing. (2 marks)
The question was testing candidates knowledge on visual perception in a work of art. They were required to study the thawing shown above and identify two facial expressions conveyed by the drawing.
WeaknessesThe candidates were unable to analyze the thawing and identify the two facial expressions. Majority of the candidates had diverse perceptions but based on the theme such as flamboyant, elated somber mood, pensive mood etc which was wrong. Therefore, most of the candidates misinterpreted the question and hence gave the wrong answers.
Art, depends primarily on visual perception that is, the process by which we interpret the work we see. When you first look at the thawing, you may see a young woman turning away from you so that only her cheek line, the top of her nose and her eyelashes are visible. Or you may see an old woman with a large warty nose, whose chin is buried in a dark collar.
(c) Explain why pink and maroon are considered a tint and shade respectively. (2 marks)
The question was based on the elements of Art and Design. The candidates were required to explain why pink and maroon are considered a tint and shade respectively.
WeaknessesMost of the candidates were familiar with the pink and maroon colours however, they were unable to distinguish the colours. They lacked the appropriate language to respond to the question correctly. The responses showed poor exposure to terms and concepts in Art and Design.
Both pink and maroon are obtained from red. By adding white to red to get pink and black to red to get maroon.
Tinting refers to the process of lightening a medium by adding white while shading involves darkening a colour using black.
(d) Explain how tonal, textural and decorative effects are achieved in a mosaic design. (3 marks)
This item was examining the candidates knowledge on the mosaic technique. The technique involves pasting or sticking one type of a material to create a picture. The candidates were particularly required to explain how tonal, textural and decorative effects are achieved in this technique.
WeaknessesAccording to the responses, most candidates misunderstood the question and gave responses hi reference to collage and montage-picture making techniques.
Tonal values in a mosaic are achieved by variation of colour of the same material used.
Texture effect are created by the spaces or interstices between the tessarae pieces, The type and arrangement of
tessarae also creates textural effects.
The various shapes of the tessarae and the varying colours of the mosaic creates on overall decorative or aesthetic effect. The type of material may be used to enhance an overall decorative or aesthetic effect.
The poster displayed below is for an eye glass company.
Describe three outstanding features in the illustration which make the message clear and effective.(3 marks)
The question was examining candidates knowledge on poster design.
They were required to study the illustration above and describe features which make effective.
WeaknessesSome of the candidates misunderstood the question and gave inappropriate answers. features and failed to describe them.
the message clear and Others mentioned the
(i) The illustration of wide peering eyes, bold precise eye glasses and universal face enhances clarity and effectiveness of the message.
(ii) Bold, clear and attractive type of lettering also make the message clear and effective.
(iii) Sharp contrast between black and white layout tend to emphasis the idea of vision.
(g) Identify one distinctive characteristic of a twill weave (1 mark)
The question was testing candidate's knowledge on the weaving technique. They were required to identify one
distinctive characteristic of a twill weave.
WeaknessesMany candidates were nof conversant with the twill weave structures and performed extremely poorly.
Twill weave structures create diagonal lines or staircase pattern. A line of more than one strand of wefts alternative between warp strands. A twill weave has also a front and backside.
(h) Study the composition below.
Give two reasons why the leading horse rider in the composition is the centre of interest (2 marks)
The item was examining candidate's knowledge on dominance or emphasis an important principle of art and design. The candidates were required to stud' the composition above and give reasons why the leading horse rider is the centre of interest or emphasis.
WeaknessesMany candidates failed to give appropriate reasons why the leading horse rider was the centre of interest or emphasis.
Expected ResponsesOne method in Art and Design used to attract attention in a work of art is placement. The central placement and sharp contrast of black and white layout makes the leading rider more conspicuous hence centre of interest or emphasis. Secondly, all forms in the composition that show movement tend to radiate at the leading horse rider.
(a) Distinguish between a logo and a letterhead for a company and explain their relationship.
(b) Name the two main components of a business card for a person employed in a company. (4 marks)
The item was based on graphic design and was examining candidate's knowledge on corporate identities. In Part (a) they were required to differentiate between a logo and letterhead for a company and explain their relationship.
In part (b) of the question required the candidates to name the components of a business card.
WeaknessesA considerable number of the candidates were unable to distinguish a logo from a letterhead. They appeared not conversant with corporate identities and hence failed to differentiate the concepts. Some defined the logo and left out the letterhead and hence incomplete responses. Apparently, they also failed to name the components of a business card.
A logo is a symbol that identifies a company, club or any other group usually made of a few artistic drawn letters and shapes. On the other hand a letterhead is a name, symbol and address representing a person or a firm printed as a heading on a sheet of letter paper. Their relationship is that a logo is part of the letterhead that it identifies the specific organization or company to which the letterhead belongs. Components of a business a card include name and status of the person in the company. The logo/symbol/illustration and address representing the company of the employee.
To the space provided below, draw a section of the colour wheel and label it to show the analogous relationship of yellow and blue colours. (5 marks)
The item was based on colour an important element of Art and Design. Particularly it was testing candidate's knowledge on the colour wheel and the analogous relationship of colours. They were expected to draw a section of the colourwheel and label it to show the analogous relationship of yellow and blue colours.
WeaknessesMany candidatcs failed to draw the section of the colourwheel as required by the question. Some of the
candidates did not know what analogous colours are and hence gave vague or irrelevant answers. Poor labeling of the section of the colourwheel was evident as some used abbreviations without a key.
Illustration of a section of a colourwheel
Explain how balance, rhythm and movement can be identified in sculpture. (3 marks)
The question was testing candidate's knowledge on the principles of design in a sculpture. They were required to explain how balance, rhythm and movement are identified in a sculptural form.
WeaknessesMost candidates showed weaknesses and inability in explaining how these principles are portrayed in a sculpture. Many of them lacked the appropriate language to express themselves adequately. Most of the candidates therefore, scored poorly in this item.
In sculpture balance is identified by the weighting, proportional arrangement and harmonious relationship of masses/solids and voids to create stability. Rhythm is created by the repetition of similar forms in the sculpture e.g. solids, voids, colour, texture etc. Movement is identified by the general flow of and direction of masses/solids/contours and voids within and
around the whole sculpture.
(a) style and type of art; (3 marks)
(b) format and use of space; (3 marks)
(c) shape and proportion; (3 marks)
(d) depth and distance; (3 marks)
(e) theme and subject matter. (3 marks)
This question in Section C was optional. It was based on critical analysis and appreciation of a work of art. The question required the candidates to study the picture above and analyse it in reference to style and type of art, format and use of space, shape and proportion, depth and distance theme and subject matter.
WeaknessesVery few candidates opted for this item probably because they were not conversant with the topic. This indicates that majority of the candidates have not been exposed to critical analysis of a work of art.
Style semi-abstract and is a drawing or painting. The format is horizontal/landscape with space divided into two distinct areas by a bold line running across the composition. Vast empty sky is set against a busy foreground. Space not very well utilized. Shapes are simple distorted, elongated and exaggerated. Proportions are largely ignored. The overlapping forms, the use of the horizontal line and the building create a feeling of depth and distance. The theme is �Music� based on the musical or open concert subject matter.
Describe the process of decorating a white fabric using marbling and block printing
techniques to obtain prints on a marbled brown background. (15 marks)
The question was testing candidate's knowledge on fabric decoration. They were required to describe the process of decorating a fabric using the marbling and block printing techniques.
Wash the fabric in soapy water to remove starch, dirt and any other dressing.
Crumple the fabric into a ball and using strings tie it tightly at random.
Prepare the dye bath for the brown colour.
Dip the fabric into the dye bath and stir to ensure even penetration of the dye.
Remove the fabric and rinse in cold water to remove the excess dye.
Untie the strings and hang the fabric to dry completely under a shade.
Iron the fabric to remove creases.
Stretch and secure the fabric on a flat surface using staples or tacks.
Make a suitable design on paper.
Transfer the design onto the block.
Cut out the negative areas of the design.
Make registration marks on the fabric as per the design.
Using a roller, apply ink evenly on the design on the block.
Place the block on the fabric as per the registration marks and press firmly to transfer the design.
Lift up the block carefully and continue the process until completion and leave it to dry.
16.3 PAPER 2 (442/2)
ALTERNATIVE A: DRAWING OR PAINTING
Question 1 and 2
You are instructed that the use of rulers and other mechanical devices is forbidden in this alternative.
1. In an area measuring 30 cm by 45 cm, create a pictorial composition based on the themer The Boda Boda Ride
2. Your school is presenting a dance titled �Shadows and Images. In a space measuring 30 cm by 45 cm, produce a painting to be used as a backdrop for the dance.
Question 1, required the candidates to create a pictorial composition depicting The
Boda Boda Ride. The other alternative question in the section was based on painting. The candidates were expected to compose a painting to be used as a backdrop for a dance titled �Shadows and Images�. These questions were examining candidates ability to interpret theme, use of media, application of elements and principles of organization.
WeaknessesThe use of media, practical application of the elements and principles of design were not well executed by a considerable number of the candidates.
Most of the work based on Boda Boda Ride showed poor articulation of forms. They created weak compositions and failed to show the detailed features of the motorbike or bicycle. Their work also showed poor proportions of human figures.
The question on painting a composition for a backdrop representing the dance Shadows and Images was also not well done by most candidates. The term �Backdrop� posed a big challenge to a considerable number of candidates who failed to comprehend it and hence interpreted the question wrongly.
Most of the candidates had difficulties rendering correct proportion of forms and perspective or depth. Their work also showed poor definition of forms and images.
Advice to teachers
Expose and give candidates more practicals and especially studies of human and animal structure including their proportions. They should also highlight the importance of imagination and creativity. -
ALTERNATIVE B: GRAPHICS
Question 3 and 4
You are instructed that the use of rulers and other mechanical devices as well as tracing paper is allowed.
The colour of the working surface (paper) will not be considered as one of the colours required in any question.
3. The Kenya Tourist Agency has a space for a stand at an International Show. Using three colours and in an area measuring 30 cm by 45 cm, create a design for the stand to include a logo and a motto for the agency. The motto should not exceed three words.
4. The following text is taken from a book on African folk tales titled African Beats and Rhythms.
The blend of his voice and instruments pierced the silent night air setting the village astir with movement.
Using a biro or pen and ink of any colour, design a page layout that includes an appropriate illustration and text.
Your work should measure 38 cm by 29 cm.
Questions in this alternative are based on Graphics. In question 3, the candidates were required to create a design for Kenya Tourist Agency who have a stand at an International Show. They were also expected to incorporate a logo and motto not exceeding three words for the Agency.
In the other alternative question (4), the candidates were required to design a page layout that includes an appropriate illustration and text for a book on African folk tales titled African Beats and Rhythm�.
WeaknessesThe candidates failed to create an appropriate design layout for the International Show Stand for the Kenya Tourist Agency. Weak lettering and illustrations and poor layout was evident in most of the candidates work. Most of the candidates had difficulties in incorporating the logo and motto on the design layout of the stand. Those who opted to produce the page layout of a book titled �African Beats and Rhythm� did not perform well either. Their performance was poor due to inadequate knowledge of Graphic Design processes. Poor lettering, poor choice of typefaces and colour was quite evident in their work. Some of the candidates placed more emphasis on the illustration than the written text. Poor spacing of letters, poor presentation and finish were the other notable weaknesses.
Advice to teachers
Teachers are advised to teach Graphic Design more comprehensively and give adequate practicals where necessary. Enhance teaching on various lettering styles/types in relation to function.
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