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Introduction to Biology - Biology Form 1

Background

All around us we notice the existence of trees, grass, insects, birds, wild animals, rocks, soil, water and many other things. This make part of our environment from which we derive existence.

All these things can be put into two categories: Living things and non-living things. You learnt about these things in Primary science.

In Biology we study living things.

LESSON OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Define biology.
  • List at least five branches of Biology.
  • Explain ways in which Biology is important in our every day life.
  • State the characteristics of living things.
  • State the main observable differences between plants and animals.

INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

Biology is a science. It is the study of living things in their environment.
The word Biology is derived from two Greek words: Bios which means life and logos which means knowledge. People who study Biology are called Biologists.

In this session you will learn about

Branches of Biology,

  • Characteristics of living things,
  • Classification of living things,
  • Cells and their structure, the microscope and how to use and care for it,
  • Cell Physiology,
  • Nutrition in plants and animals.



Branches of Biology

Biology can be divided into various branches. Such branches are named according to which organisms are involved:

1. Botany- the study of plants e.g. Maize.

2. Zoology- the study of animals e.g. Leopard

3. Microbiology- the study of micro-organisms e.g. bacteria

4. Mycology- the study of fungi e.g. mushrooms


1. Botany- the study of plants e.g. Maize.

2. Zoology- the study of animals e.g. Leopard


3. Microbiology- the study of micro-organisms e.g. bacteria

Bacteria

4. Mycology- the study of fungi e.g. mushrooms

Mushrooms

Taxonomy refers to study of scientific classification of organisms.


  Importance of Biology

  • Study of Biology helps you to develop scientific skills such as planning, observing, classifying, measuring, recording and analyzing
  • It is also necessary for entry into careers such as Medicine, Teaching, Agriculture and Research. Scientific research based on Biology has led to development of high yielding and disease-resistant plants and animals.

  • In solving environmental problems such as shortage of food, poor health services misuse of environmental resources e.g. forests, wildlife, water and soil.
  • To know more about living organisms in relation to their environment.
    • SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

      Nutrition

      Reproduction

      Refers to giving rise to young ones of the same kind. Living things give rise to young ones of their own kind.

        Irritability

      Living things have the ability to detect and respond to changes in their environment.

      Gaseous Exchange

      They exchange Carbon (iv) Oxide and Oxygen, across a respiratory surface.

      Respiration

      They breakdown food in their body cells to release energy.

      Excretion

      They remove waste products of chemical reactions from the body.

      Movement

      Change in position of part or whole organism.

      Animation

      Growth and Development:

      They grow. Growth is permanent increase in size and mass of an organism.

        They develop. This is the modification of simple structures to more complex forms.


      Excretion

      Reproduction

      Irritability

      Growth and Development








      MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

      The following statements are comparisons between plants and animals.

      Click on True or False button for the correct statement.

        Plants make their own food while animals feed on already made food.

        Plants and most animals move from one place to another.

        In the bubble show some parts of a plant moving while animals move from place to place.

      • Plants respond slowly while animals respond quickly to changes in the environment.
      • Plants and animals grow throughout the life.

      In the bubble - plants grow indefinitely while animals stop growing when they reach adult stage.

       Other difference between plants and animals will be explained in relevant topics.

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