Computer Report


From the inception of revised secondary curriculum in the year 2002, the subject Computer Studies has been
examined five times in the years 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively.
The subject is examined in three papers:

  • Computer Studies paper one coded 451/1, a theory paper which covers the entire syllabus;
  • Computer Studies paper two coded 451/2, a practical paper which examine the application packages in the syllabus.
  • Computer Studies paper 3, coded 451/3 which is a trade project.

    The table below shows performance in Computer Studies in the years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Table 31: Candidates Overall Performance in Computer Studies for the last three years.

    Year Paper Candidature
    Maximum Score
    Mean Score
    Standard Deviation
    2007 451/1
    2008 451/1
    5,498 100
    2009 451/1
    6,115 100
    2010 451/1

    The following are the observation:

    25.1.1 There is a dramatic increase in candidature in the subject from 4,732 in the year 2007 to 7,045 in year
    2010. This representing 48.9% and 15.2% from 2009 to 2010

    25.1.2 Overall performance in the subject increased from a mean of 96.34 in the year 2009 to 96.34th the year

    25.1.3 Performance in paper 1 (451/1) increased from a mean of 45.41 in the year 2009 tc a mean of 51.98 in the year 2010, representing a 14.47% increase.

    25.1.4 Performance in both the practical paper (451/2) increased from a mean of 50.93 in the year 2009 to a mean of 59.83 in the year 2010, representing a 17.47% increase.

    Questions which were poorly performed in the 2010 examinations are briefly discussed below.

    25.2 PAPER 1 (451/1)

    Question 1
    List four activities carried out by a data processing system.


    Students were listings the stages of data processing cycle
    Expected Response

    • Input
    • Process
    • Control
    • Storage
    • Output

    Advice to Teachers

    Teachers should emphasize the distinction between the activities in SDLC and the data processing stages

    Question 3

    Explain why an intranet is a more secure way to share files within an organisation compared to the internet.

    Expected Response

    Intranet is a company's internal network to which outsiders cannot get access to while Internet allows outsiders to access company network if proper security measures are not implemented.


    Some candidates could not relate intranet security in terms of number of users

    Question 7

    Study the pseudo code below and determine its output.

    1(a) T =0
    2(a) M =M+T
    (b)T =T=5
    (c)K =K+l
    3. Repeat step 2 while K< 3
    4. Write M, T
    5. Exit

    Expected Response

    Learners were expected to generate the following list of output

    T M K
    0 0 0
    5 0 2
    10 5 3


    Candidates showed inability to execute the number of times the pseudo code ioop executes and therefore producing wrong output.

    Question 11
    Copyright laws are laws granting authors the exclusive privilege to produce, distribute, perform or display their creative works. It is a legal framework for protecting the works such as book publishing, motion-picture production and recording.
    State two challenges that are posed to these laws by JCT.

    Expected Response

    • Easy of communication.
    • Easy of duplication
    • Enforcing is still a problem e.g. officers are not computer literate.
    • Lack of capacity for people enforcing the law


    The question was poorly attempted. Majority of the candidates were unable to give challenges posed to copyright laws by ICT

    Advice to the teacher

    The teachers are expected to make emphasize on this area. There are many imported reference materials which exhaustively cover this topical area.

    Question 16

    (a) Machine language programs are more difficult to write than high-level language programs. State two reasons for this.
    (b) In order to process examination results of students in a school, their names, index numbers and scores in 11 subjects are required. The average score for each student is then determined and a grade assigned. This process is repeated for all 40 students in a class.

    Draw a flowchart to:

    Read a student's name, index number and the scores in all the subjects.
    Determine the student's average score.

    Assign a grade to the student depending on the average score as follows:

    Score                 Grade
    80<score               A
    60<score<80         B
    40<score<60         C
    score<40               F

    Display the student's name, index number, average score and the grade.

    Repeat the above steps for all the students in the class.

    (c) Below is a list of program segments in different generations of programming languages. Identify the language for each.

    (i) LDA 105 SUB 40 ADD 20
    (ii) 10000110   1011110101111000   0001100
    (iii) For x: = 1 to 10 do Write (x);

    Expected response

    It is time consuming to develop.
    It is easy to make mistakes because only 0's and l's are used.
    Program written for one computer model may not run on another computer model.

    Expected response

    Expected flow chart is as shown
    Generation of programming languages:
    (i) Second generation
    (ii) First generation
    (iii) Third generation
    Most students were unable to use appropriate flow charting tools. They were also unable to conceptualise the looping structure in the narrative.
    Advice to the teacher
    Flow charting concept should be emphasised when teaching by using real life problems. Learners to be exposed to more exercises on the same.

    Question 20
    (a) Using ones complement, convert the decimal number 9 into a 6-bit binary number
    (b) (i) State three standard coding schemes used in data representation.

    Expected response

    (H) In a certain coding scheme, each character occupies 7 bits. Letters of the alphabet are assigned consecutive codes. If letter N is represented by 1010010; what is the representation of letter A in this coding scheme
    (c) Using twos complement, show how the arithmetic below would be carried out on a 8-bit computer system.

    Expected response



    The candidates had difficulty in representing letters character in its equivalent binary notation implying that they had no idea on how characters are represented using the four coding schemes as required in the syllabus namely; ASCII, BCD, EBCDIC, Extended ASCII

    25.3 PAPER 2 (451/2)

    Question 1

    Mr Kiprop Onyango owns houses for rent. Table 1 below is a record of his tenants rent payments.

    Table 1
    (a) Create a database file that can be used to store the above data. Name the file �Rent'.
    (b) Create two tables, one to store tenant details and another to store tenant rent payments. Name the tables �Tenants and �Payments respectively.
    (c) Create a relationship between the two tables.
    (d) Design a form to be used to enter data into each of the two tables
    (e) Enter the information given into the two tables.
    (0 Create a report showing the amount Mr. Onyango received from each tenant, the total for each month and the total amount he received over the three months. The report should be titled �Rent Income'. Save the report as Income.
    (g) (i) Create a query named �Statement' to extract Malols records of rent payment.
    (ii) Create a report named �Tenant Statement' showing Malols rent payment history. The report should be titled Tenant Statement'.
    (h) Print the two tables and the two reports.

    Expected response

    (a) Creating a database
    Correct database name
    (b) Creation of the two tables
    Each table �/2 mark
    Primary key (1 table)
    Fields (first table)
    a 3 fields
    Fields for the 2nd table
    (c) Relationship

    • Correct relationship
    • Choosing correct table
    • Enforcing the relationship

    (d) Creating the two forms

    • Existence of fields
    • Providing name to each form

    (e) Each tenant record (Form) �/ x 6
    records Each payment record (Form) � x 12 records

    (f) Presence of report
    Appearance correct (fields)

    • Name
    • Month
    • Amount Use of functions
    • Sum January, February, March
    • Grand total

    Report naming and saving
    Title name
    (g) (i) Presence of correct query
    Presence of fields (Name, Amount, Month) in the query Correct criteria
    Saving query
    (ii) Report
    Data source (query) Name of report (saving) Title of report
    (h) Printing: Candidates expected to print:

    • 2 tables
    • 2 reports


    Candidates were not keen to name the database using the name provided, they use default names as supplied by the application.

    Some candidates were unable to split the table provided into two distinct entities, showing clearly that they lacked the basic knowledge of normalisation.

    Some candidates created forms that were not related to the table structure

    There were cases of wrong data entry, indicated that learners were not keen on their work or they lacked basic keyboard skills.

    Creating report with summaries proved to be an uphill task for some many candidates indicating that they lacked the basic concepts on the creation of summaries using the inbuilt functions as provided for by the application.

    Some learners were unable to produce the required hard copies of their work, indicating that they lacked concepts of printing.

    Advice to Teachers

    The teachers should introduce basic concepts of normalisation up to the First Normal Form (1NF) without taking the candidates through the complexities of normalisation. The learners should be able to appreciate the need to have tables split.

    Schools should ensure that learners are exposed to hardcopy output devices, which include printers and their accompanying accessories so that learners can perform some of the required task with speed and accuracy.


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