Esoma Online Revision Resources

Grammar - English Form 1


What is grammar?

Grammar is defined as the way words are combined to form longer and meaningful units. The main objective of learning grammar is to help you understand how language works and be able to use it correctly and appropriately in different contexts. The teaching and learning of the grammar of a language begins with the word. Therefore, it is important that learners master the characteristics and uses related to words as classified under parts of speech.

Learning how rules operate in a language is necessary but it is much more important to know how to use the language in real life situations. It means a learner who has mastered grammar knows how to apply the rules in order to communicate effectivey and thus enhance positive interactions among people.


Lesson Objectives:

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

1. Identify different types of nouns correctly

2.Use nouns in sentences correctly

Background Information

Read the sentences below each picture paying close attention to the underlined words


  1. Koech lives on a tree.
  2. Nairobi is the busiest city in Kenya.
  3. Omondi hurt his leg badly during the game.
  4. The accident claimed the lives of many children.
  5. Drought is a major problem in North Eastern Province due to poor rains.

All the underlined words are nouns. They name people, places, events and things.

Lesson Objectives:

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

1. Identify different types of nouns correctly

2.Use nouns in sentences correctly


Nouns are words used to name person(s), place(s) event(s) or thing(s).Name the nouns you can see in the picture below:

Nouns are divided into two main groups namely:

a) Proper nouns

b)Common nouns

Activity 2:

Activity 3:

Common nouns are names of ordinary things or groups.

Proper nouns are names of specific people, countries, months, days.

Note that all proper nouns are written with an initial capital letter e.g. March, Halima.

Provide an alphabet strip so that the learner can type in the answers.

Activity 4:

Drap drop the correct word from the choices given to complete the sentences correctly.

  1. The hyenas_ put him in problems.
  2. People are dying of _ in drought stricken areas.
  3. _ lies in the eyes of the beholder.
  4. His _ came after a long struggle.
  5. The teachers presence caused the pupils a lot of _.

Discomfort, beauty, hunger, greed, success.

    Study the sentences below.

  1. There are pins on the table.

  2. The elephant crushed the poacher to death.

  3. Kimani secured admission into the University.

    • The underlined words are known as concrete nouns. These are things that we can see, touch, hear, smell or taste.

    • Nouns that are not tangible, that is, they cannot be seen or heard are called abstract nouns. Other examples include kindness, corruption, hunger, greed among others.

Background Information

Your basic knowledge on nouns, pronouns and other parts of speech will be useful this lesson.

Relate the sentences to the position of things mentioned in the animation

Lesson Objectives:

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Identify prepositions in sentences correctly.
  • Use prepositions appropriately in sentences.


A preposition is a word that is positioned before its object and shows relationship between the object and another word (complement).

1.The thief jumped over the fence.

2.The goats run across the field.

3.Joan dived into the swimming pool.

The words over, across and into are prepositions.

Activity 3:

Activity 4:


ANIMATION: Recreate the story below emphasizing (1) the hare glancing sideways and focusing on the groundnuts. (Animation strip).The hare harvesting the groundnuts while the guard is snoring. The farmer punishing the guard. Create hot spots on the prepositions.

Background Information

For you to understand noun phrases you need to have mastered determiners and modifiers. A determiner is a word which is used before a noun to show which particular example of the noun you are referring to.

Study the following sentences paying attention to the underlined phrases and the highlighted words within the phrases:

  1. The cow ate grass
  2. Most lions move in a pride.
  3. My new shoes have laces.
  4. That yellow cheese is made from milk.
  5. The sheep's fleece is used to make warm sweaters.

The words the, my, most and that are determiners. Determiners include articles, numbers, demonstratives etc. New and yellow are modifiers because they tell us more about the shoes and the cheese.The words cow, lions, shoes, cheese and sheep are nouns.

In each of the sentences, the underlined groups of words are known as noun phrases.They have a noun as the headword. A phrase then is a group of words without a subject or verb and they don't make sense on their own.

The following are further examples of Noun Phrases:

Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Identify the constituents of a Noun Phrase correctly.
  • Describe the functions of a Noun Phrase.


Noun Phrases

A phrase is group of words that does not make sense on its own. A noun phrase is a group of words that does the work of a noun in a sentence. The following are examples of noun phrases:

1 the tall building

2 our new books

3 the dangerous path

The nouns building, books
and path
are head words of the noun phrases above.

Activity 3:

Match the pictures and the sentences.

  1. My beautiful ballerina won the championship.
  2. The jungle is a scary place to be.
  3. The boy woke up early.
  4. That Schools cyber cafe is operational
  5. The roof tops are caving in.

Include a pictorial depicting the words that have been underlined.

A picture of a beautiful ballerina.

A picture of a jungle

A picture of a boy waking up.

A cyber cafe.

A caving roof top.







The words, my beautiful ballerina, the jungle, the boy, that schools cyber cafe and the roof tops are referred to as phrases. Phrase then is a group of words without a subject or verb and they do not make sense on their own.
For instance the phrase my beautiful ballerina has no verb or subject and it requires the second part of the sentence, won the championship to make it meaningful.
The second phrase, the jungle, has no subject or verb and it requires the part of the sentence, is a scary place to be, to make sense.

Activity 4:

Activity 5

Type the correct noun phrases in the spaces provided.

  1. The teacher went to the class.
  2. The students went to the class.
  3. A hungry dog devoured all the meat.
  4. Our computers are all new.
  5. A stray elephant destroyed their crops.

Create a space below each sentence where the student can type the correct noun phrase(s) put a tick after the correct answer.

  1. The teacher

The class

  1. The student

The zoo

  1. A hungry dog

All the meat

  1. Our computers
  2. A story

Their crops.

Note that we can have more than one noun phrase in a sentence. For example in the sentence; a stray elephant destroyed their crops, has two noun phrases:
A stray elephant and their crops

Background Information

Click on the numbers below the picture to view the other pictures.

NB:The words ending in -ing are verbs and they are often referred to as action words.

Lesson Objectives:

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the different verb forms correctly.

  • Construct different types of simple sentences appropriately.



Verbs are words used to describe an action or state, for example, run, jump, eat, drink, swim ,is, am and are.

The man in the picture is drinking coconut juice

Activity 1:

Highlight all the verbs that are used in the sentences:
Read the following sentences

  1. The girl is walking to school.
  2. The bird is flying.
  3. The boy is reading a text book.
  4. The man is eating yams.
  5. The girl is dancing.

The sentences are all in the present form and the action words have been highlighted. If the statement is changed into a past action, the focus will be on the action words (verbs).

Activity 3

Change the verb given in brackets into the Past Tense to make meaningful sentences.
Type from the keyboard the correct answer

If the typed answer is right applaud the student. Incase the answer is wrong, encourage the student to try again to get the correct answer.

This is a drag and drop exercise. Applaud for the correct answer and give encouragement for the wrong answer:
Provide the appropriate verb from the list given in the box.






  1. Joshua was _ in the field. (hurt)
  2. She _ off the lights after preps(put)
  3. Mwikali _ the debating club this term(quit)
  4. The thief was _ by a speeding Matatu(hit)
  5. Our netball _ the visiting sunrise Girls team(beat)

Activity 5:

the correct answer to fill the blank spaces.

Background Information

You need to be familiar with parts of speech especially verbs and adjectives. Read the following sentences paying attention to the highlighted words:

  1. Juma runs quickly.
  2. This is a very sweet mango.
  3. Jane reads quite clearly.

In sentence 1, quickly shows how or in what manner Juma runs, that is, quickly modifies the verb runs.

In sentence 2, very shows how much or to what degree the mango is sweet, that is, very modifies the adjective sweet.

In sentecnce 3, quite shows how far or to what extent Jane reads clearly, that is, quite modifies the adverb clearly.

A word that that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb is called an adverb.

Lesson Objectives.
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Define an adverb.
  • Identify adverbs in sentences correctly.
  • Use adverbs of manner, time and frequency in sentences correctly.


Advebs are words used to decribe verbs (actions), adjectives or other adverbs.These words explain how,when and how often an action in a sentence occurs. The following sentences illustrate this idea.

1.Esther sang the song nicely.

2. Kubo is washing his shirt now.

3.The choir practises everyday.

The adverbs

give us more information about the verbs or actions mentioned in the sentences above.

Activity 2:


The underlined words in the sentences are adverbs. These are words that explain how, when and how often the actions in the sentences occur.
For example:
How often does Atieno go to school? Everyday
When is Kamau going to dig his farm? Now
How is Katana pushing the cart? Slowly

There are different kinds of adverbs, in this lesson however, we shall deal with adverbs of frequency (how often), time (when), and manner (how).

Activity 3:

Activity 4

Activity 6

Background Infomation

Information on nouns and pronouns would be useful in this lesson. Look at the following photograph and name all the nouns.

Some of the nouns in the photograph are:

  • tree
  • nests
  • house
  • car
  • sky

If you want to describe the nouns in the photograph, you may talk of a permanent house, a blue sky or a tall tree. The words permanent, blue and tall are referred to as adjectives. These are words used to describe or tell us more about a noun or pronoun.

The highlighted words are more examples of adjectives:

1. Rosemary owns a beautiful house at Gachie

Rosemary's house

2.Mature coconut


3.Coastal trees

Palm trees

Gradable and non-gradable adjectives

A gradable adjective is an adjective which can have -er and -est added to it or be used with "more" and "most" when making comparisons.


  • The tea is hotter than the porridge.
  • Pine trees are more beautiful than wattle trees.

Hot and beautiful are gradable adjectives

On the other hand, non-gradable adjectives are absolute and therefore not comparable.


  • An atomic bomb was used to destroy the city of Hiroshima.
  • Njeri is an American citizen.

Atomic and a American are non-gradable adjectives

Lesson Objectives:
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Identify adjectives in a sentence correctly.
  • Give examples of gradable and non gradable adjectives.
  • Differentiate between gradable and non gradable adjectives.
  • Use adjectives in sentences correctly

  • Adjectives

    Adjectives are words used to describe or give more informatiom about a noun or a pronoun, for example short, beautiful, new and old as illustrated in the following sentences:

    1. Fatuma bought a beautiful dress.

    2.The farmer used an old lorry.

    3.Ketan drives a new car.

    The adjectives used in the sentences above provide more information about the nouns.

    Activity 3

    Insert pictures.

    1. Left side: a man feeling cold in a sweater.

    Right: a man feeling very cold in an overcoat and a shawl round his neck.
    He is also wearing gloves. The man is shivering.

    1. Left side: a bungalow on sale with a price tag of 1.5m.

    Right side: a maisonette on sale with a price tag of 2m.

    1. Left side: a lady driving a big car

    Right side: a lady driving a very big car.

    Eldoret is _ cold than Limuru.

    1. Sidis car is _ big compared to Damas.
    2. A bungalow is _ expensive than a maisonette.
    3. Insert an alphabet strip so that the learner can type in the answers.
    1. Less
    2. very
    3. extremely

    Study the sentences below paying attention to the highlighted words.

    1. Diamond is a unique jewel.
    2. My mother has a woolen sweater.
    3. Some of the exhausted players were allowed to rest.

    Highlight the words in the boxes in a different colour.

    The highlighted words in the sentences are non gradable because they do not indicate degree. That is, they express a complete idea.

    Assessment 3

    Activity 4
    Ungradable Adjectives

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