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Reading - English Form 1

Reading

Reading is a mental process that involves the ability to interpret words and symbols and assigning them meaning to communicate ideas or thoughts. The ability to read effectively and fluently is vital both for academic purposes and life in general.

Good reading skills will help improve performance in schools, enhance information gathering and learning of concepts. Reading will expose you to new vocabulary ,new sentence structures and good models of language use.

Background Information

Efficient reading is about reading in a way that allows you to understand the writer's message without spending too much time in the process. It's also about reading with a clear purpose in mind so that you only read material that is relevant. When you're reading in preparation for an essay or for understanding generally, remember that good reading strategies go hand-in-hand with good note taking skills.

Efficient reading starts with choosing a strategy to suit the kind of text you have to read because your purpose in reading and the nature of text to be read will determine your strategy

There are various techniques employed in reading depending on the purpose. In this lesson you are going to explore
Skimming and Scanning as examples of techniques commonly used in reading.

Skimming

This means reading the text quickly to understand the main points without studying the text in detail.Skimming is done when one wants to get an overall impression of the text

Scanning

This is done when one wants to locate specific information from a text .Scanning also involves looking through the text or material quickly to get required information.


Lesson Objective.


By the end of the lesson you should be able to read a passage within a given time.



Speed Reading

The process of reading involves more than just looking at words.It entails interpreting and assigning meaning to words and symbols to communicate desired information.The speed at which you read is determined by how fast and efficient your eyes transfer the infomation to the brain and how quickly the brain interprets the message.
You have to pratise reading fast in order to save time and at the same time access and process information required within a given time.

Activity 2.
Read the passage provided as fast as you can.

The palm tree is a wonder tree. Its fronds can be used to decorate outdoor events when they are freshly cut and green. The dry fronds can be used to make brooms and mats. weaved into 'Makuti' pieces, they make beautiful thatching material. Palm trees are also used for timber and firewood. The fruits of the palm tree are very nutritious, palm seeds can also be used to produce palm oil.
In some cases the sap of the young fronds can be tapped and then fermented to make palm wine. All these uses, make the palm tree a major economic resource for the communities living along the Coastal regions.

Create a clock such that the passage disappears from the screen after a minute and a half. Let the students access the same passage if they want to do the exercise again.

Activity 3



Read the passage again in one minute and try to find answers to the questions below.

  1. What is made from dry fronds?
  2. Which part of the palm tree is said to be very nutritious?
  3. What is fermented to make palm wine?
  4. Which people benefit from the palm tree?

Provide the passage again for only 11/2 minutes and provide a check answer button. The answers are.

    1. Broom and mats
    2. the coconut
    3. the sap
    4. People living along the coastal region

Activity 4
Read the following passage in 11/2 minutes and as you read try to find answers to the questions below.

  1. What ailments are brought about by smoking?
  2. Why is smoking unhygienic?
  3. Why is smoking equated to a worm?
  4. Does smoking affect unborn babies?

Smoking is a harmful habit. The tobacco used to manufacturing the cigarettes causes side effects to the smoker.
Tobacco is carcinogenic. It causes cancer of the mouth, oral tract and the lungs. In addiction it causes discoloration of the teeth and the fingers. Not only does smoking affect those who smoke but it also affects the unborn babies in the case of pregnant women who smoke. Passive smokers or those who inhale the smoke indirectly are also at great risk, smoking weakens and clouds the brain and creates thirst of alcohol.
Smoking is also dirty and unhygienic. Many smokers litter their precincts with ashes and cigarette butts.
Tobacco smoking can be equated to a worm that eats you slowly from inside such that by the time the symptoms are visible the damage is irreparable.

Provide a check answer button. The answers are:

  1. Cancer of the mouth, oral tract and lungs.
  2. Its unhygienic because many smokers litter their precincts with ashes and cigarette butts.
  3. Smoking is equated to a worm because it eats one from the inside and by the time the symptoms are visible, the damage is irreparable.

The process of reading involves more than just looking at words. The speed with which you read is determined by how fast and efficient your eyes transfer what they see to the brain and how quickly the brain interprets the message.
You have to practice reading fast especially when you have to save time. In order to learn how to read fast, one needs to do the following.

  1. Understand how reading takes place.
  2. Read word groups rather than individual words.

Fast: I cooked delicious food for the family.
Slow: I cooked delicious food for the family.
The first sentence has been read by a fast reader while the second is by a slow reader.

  • Try to avoid distractions like noise, loud music etc.
  • Read extensively to be informed in various areas.
  • Keep assessing yourself,. Occasionally time yourself as you read widely on available reading materials.

Background Information
Poetry is a form of expression either oral or written.Poems can either be sang,recited or chanted to convey desired information.Play the animation below to see the building up of the storm as you read the poem 'A Sudden Storm'.

A SUDDEN STORM.
The wind howls, the trees sway,
The loose housetop sheets clatter and clang,
The open window shuts with a bang,
And the sky makes night of the day.

Helter skelter the parents run,
Pressed with a thousand minor cares
Hey, you there! Pack the house wares!
And where on earth is my son?

Home skip the little children
Where have you been, you naughty boy?
The child can feel nothing but joy,
For he loves the approach of the rain.

The streets clear, the houses fill,
The noise gathers as children shout,
To rival the raging wind without,
And naught that can move is still-

A bright flash! A lighted plain;
Then, from the once black heavens,
Accompanied by noise that deafens,
Steadily pours the rain.
Pious Oleghe
African Poetry for schools



Lesson Objectives:
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Read efficiently and fluently.
  • Demonstrate appropriate comprehension skills
  • Use the directory effectively
  • Build a wide range of vocabulary

Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow

Madam and her madam

I worked for a woman,
She wasn't mean;
But she had a twelve room
House to clean.

Had to get breakfast,
Dinner, and supper too
Then take care of her children
When I got through.

Wash, iron, and scrub,
Walk the dog around
It was too much,
Nearly broke me down.

I said Madam,
Can it be
You're trying to make a
Pack horse out of me?

She opened her mouth,
She cried,Oh, no!
You know, Alberta,
I love you so!

I said,Madam,
That may be true
But I'll be dogged
If I love you!

African Poetry for schools.


Intesive Reading

Intensive Reading refers to reading carefully a specific text, passage or story for comprehension.This type of reading,helps the learner develop capacity to identify relevant information, distinguish between main ideas and supporting details in a text and evaluate ideas.

Through intensive reading, the learners should also develop critical awareness necessary to analyse and appreciate literary works.Comprehension on the other hand is the ability to read , understand and remember the information for future use.




Activity 3


Create a drag and drop where learners can click on the correct answer by arranging the words in three columns. Column A will be for words showing movement, B for words indicating sound and C for words related to sight.
Drag and drop)

Arrange the following words in to three columns. Column A will be for words indicating movement, B will be for words related to sound and C for words related to sight.
Howls         clatter      approach
Sway       clang      raging     Helter skelter
Skip        bang     still
Pours        flash    bright
Deafens         night     run

A

B

C

Sway
Skip
Pours
still
helter skelter
son
approach

bang
clang
clatter
deafens
raging
howls

night
bright
flash

 

 

 

 

 

Answers

Activity 3(b)
Create a hot spot where learners can click on correct answer. Learners will arrange the sentences given so as to describe the steady build upof the storm

The following sentences describe the steady build up of the storm. Arrange them in their correct order.

The rain steadily pours
The sky darkens
There is thunder
There is a bright flash.
There is a strong wind.

Answers
There is a strong wind
The sky darkens
There is a bright flash
There is thunder
The rain steadily pours.

Activity 4

Read the following poem Madam and her Madam and attempt the questions and activities that follow
.

Include a pictorial depicting the following items.
Stanza 1- A big house, outside is a girl gazing at the house with a pail and a broom.
Stanza 2 the same girl taking children to school.
Stanza 3 the girl walking the dog around.
Stanza 4 the girl and madam conversing. The girls face is composed but Madams face should show surprise.

Note: the line Ill be dogged means under no circumstances should I love you. She cannot bring herself to love her mistress.

Madam and her madam

I worked for a woman,
She wasnt mean
But she had a twelve room
House to clean.

Had to get breakfast,
Dinner, and supper too
Then take care of her children
When I got through.

Wash, iron, and scrub,
Walk the dog around
It was too much,
Nearly broke me down.

I said Madam,
Can it be
Youre trying to make a
Pack horse out of me?

She opened her mouth,
She cried, Oh, no!
You know, Alberta,
I love you so!

I said, Madam,
That may be true
But Ill be dogged
If I love you

Langstone

African Poetry for schools.

Activity 5


Comprehension Skills
A comprehension passage tests a wide range of skills. This lesson concentrates on recall, comprehension and application skills.

THE SCANDAL OF CHILD LABOUR.

Most children help with the work in their homes. They do things like washing clothes, cleaning the house, shopping, cooking, looking after very young children, and working in the shamba. In small families, it can be difficult for parents to do this by themselves. In big families it is impossible for parents to do all the work and children therefore, have to do their share of the work. This is important because it teaches them useful life skills at a young age.

However, there is a big difference between normal family duties and giving children so much to do that they cannot go to school and have little rest or playtime. This can cause physical or mental illness. Unfortunately, this is what happens in many parts of the World, including African countries such as Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. This practice is known as child labour. It can happen in the child's own home but it is more common when the child goes out of the home for paid work.

Children do many kinds of paid work. They work on the land, for example on tea or cotton plantations, they work as servants in other people's homes, they work in factories, they work in mines and in building and construction sites, they work in bars and restaurants and they work on the streets as beggars. In some cases, they work in the sex industry, in the illegal drugs trade and as child- soldiers.

Why do they do it? They work because their families are very poor and depend on the money the child earns. In many cases, children start working because their parents have become ill with HIV and AIDS related sicknesses and cannot support the family. Some of the children are orphans and have no one to look after them. Many employers like to use children because they are cheap and can be subjected to all manner of conditions.
Child labour causes many problems.

Firstly, children work for long hours and earn very little for their hard work. This results in terrible long term effects on their lives.In addition such children do not attend school and are therefore not able to compete with their educated counterparts in the job market, thus leading to a life of poverty. This is not only bad for them, but also for the development of the Nation. The United Nations secretary General Kofi Annan once said that child labour has serious consequences that stay with the individual and with the society for far longer than the years of childhood. Young workers not only face dangerous working conditions but also long term physical, intellectual and emotional stress. They endure an adulthood of unemployment, illiteracy and poverty.

 

en-330300btext.

Common form of child labour



Common form of child labour


Lesson Objectives.
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Read efficiently and fluently.
  • Demonstrate appropriate comprehension and recall skills through answering questions correctly.
  • Make short notes from a given passage appropriately.
  • Write a short clear summary from the notes.
  • Build a wide range of vocabulary.

Comprehension Skills

Comprehension involves reading a text with a view to understanding it both for surface and deeper meaning.To develop comprehension skills effectively , you are expected to read a wide range of texts selecting essential points and applying inference and deduction where appropriate.The comperehension skills covered in this lesson include recall,comprehension and application.

Activity 2.
State whether the following statements are true or false. Support your answer.


  1. Children assist their parents.
  2. Not all work done by children is child labour.
  3. Working on plantations is the only kind of child labour activity.
  4. Children normally work to buy their parents cars and good houses.
  5. Children do not have problems in their working areas.

Give space for writing answers after every question.

Answers

  1. True: children assist their parents at home in various chores. For example in cooking, washing clothes etc.
  2. True: children can do some work and as a result even acquire some life skills.
  3. False: children work in other places also, like in prostitution, work as child soldiers and even in illegal drug trade.
  4. False: children work for other reasons like sending for themselves and caring for their sick parents.
  5. False: children have a lot of problems in their working areas. They suffer physical, intellectual and emotional stress.
    Application
    This requires you to apply what you have read in the passage. For example.

Activity 3.



Attempt the following questions.

  1. What are some of the child labour activities common in your community?
  2. What are some of the ways of curbing child labour in our society?
  3. What should be done to parents who send their children to beg on the streets?
  4. Leave a gap after every question for the learners to key in answers.Probable answers.
  1. Herding, fishing, prostitution, working in plantations, begging
  2. Parents should be educated on importance of education.
  3. Community leaders like chiefs should be in the forefront in fighting this.
  4. Employers of children should be prosecuted.
  5. All those parents who send their children to beg should be arrested.
  6. Provide answer buttons for the learner to check answers

Lesson Objectives.
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Read efficiently and fluently.
  • Demonstrate appropriate comprehension and recall skills through answering questions correctly.
  • Make short notes from a given passage appropriately.
  • Write a short clear summary from the notes.
  • Build a wide range of vocabulary

Activity 4


Insert small boxes in front of the points, such that each time the learner clicks on the main point a tick appears in the box.
Answers: 1, 2, 5, 4.

When reading a comprehension passage the main points help you in understanding. For it is from these main points that the rest of the passage is developed. The development is done by explaining the points further and giving relevant examples.

Activity 5



Make notes on the following then click on the answer button to check if they are correct.

The forms of child labour

  • .
  • .
  • .
  •  
  • Reasons why children engage in paid labour.
  • .
  • .
  • .
  •  

The effects of child labour.

  • .
  • .
  • .

Insert an alphabet strip so that the learner can type in their answers.
On the same page provide an answer button so that the learner can view the answers when he/she clicks on it.
Answers.
Forms of child labour.

  • Working on land e.g. cotton plantations
  • Servants in other peoples homes
  • Sex industry and illegal arms trade.
  • Child soldiers
  • Working in factories, mines and building industry
  • Working in bars and restaurants.

Reasons why children engage in paid labour?

  • Poverty
  • Orphans who have to look after themselves have to work.
  • AIDS
  • Children provide cheap labour to many bosses.

Effects of child labour.

  • Little income
  • Illiteracy
  • Unemployment
  • Under develops the country.
    • The answers you have typed are the points used in developing each paragraph of the passage.
    • You can pick out the points in a passage by scanning through it.
    • Using the points one can write a summary of the whole passage.
    • The points can be highlighted using:

Dashes     numbers     bullets      asterisk
-         1.       .     *
-         2     .     *
-         3     .         *

Provide a glossary option where the learner can check for the definition of the words scanning and summary. The words should be highlighted.

Scanning reading a text with an aim of getting specific information.

Summary a shortened piece of writing that gives only the main points.

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