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Writing - English Form 1

Writing

Writing is the most advanced of the four language skills that has a wide range of implications that influence our thinking and reasoning. It also encourages us to be organized, logical and creative in our thinking. Writing will enable you express your ideas clearly and effectively.

The ability to write well is essential because it influences our chances in academic disciplines, personal development and our relationships with other people. For you to achieve recommended competence in writing using a variety of sentence structures, you need to read widely.

There are different types of writing which include:

a) Personal writing

b) Social writing

c) Study writing

d) Creative writing

e) Institutional writing

f) Public writing.

A mastery of various types of writing will enable the learner to use English creatively and for expressive purposes.

Background Information

Read this summary on punctuation Marks.

Punctuation is a system of marks used in written/spoken work to make clear what is written or spoken.

Capital letters.
  • Used to begin a sentence, for example, "M" in

My teacher is coming.

  • Used with proper nouns, e.g "N" in

Nairobi/John

  • Used with the personal pronoun "I" as in
    I went home.
  • Used with days of the week, months and holidays, for example, "M"D"and"J" as in

Madaraka Day is celebrated on 1st of June

  • Used in names of organizations and religious bodies, for example,

KANU / Catholic Mission.

  • Used in abbreviations, e.g "M"D"P"and"H" as in

Mr., Dr., Prof., Hon.

Full stop

Used as a final punctuation mark (end mark), as in


Peter is coming.

Used to indicate date and time in the abbreviated form, for example, in
6.6.2006 or 8.00 a.m.

  • Used in writing of initials for example, "P" and "M" in
    P.M. Koech

Exclamation Mark (!)

  • Used to show command as in
    Quiet!
  • to show emotions (distress/surprise/awe/wonder).
    You are here! (surprise)
    Oh God! (awe)
    My toe! (distress/pain).

Question Mark (?)

  • used after a direct question as in
    Where are you going?

The comma (,)

  • used to separate items in a list as in

Kamau went to the market and bought oranges, apples, tomatoes and potatoes.


  • Used to indicate a pause in a sentence as in

As she went home, she fainted.

  • Used with a quotation or direct speech, for example,

"I am getting married," she said.



Lesson objective:

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to use punctuation marks correctly.


Punctuation

Punctuation is a system of using universally accepted marks and symbols in written work or communication. In oral work or spoken infomation, punctuation marks may not be voiced but the speaker will pause, stop temporarily, ask questions,wonder or make exclamations and other gestures to communicate effectively. Appropriate use of punctuation marks especially in writing enhances effective communication and makes reading easy to comprehend.


Activity 2

Punctuation Exercise

Activity 3 .
Read this summary on punctuation Marks.

Punctuation is a system of marks used in written/spoken work to make clear what is written or spoken.

  1. Capital letters.
    1. Used to begin a sentence

My teacher is coming

    1. Used with proper Nouns

Nairobi/John

    1. Personal pronouns

I went home.

    1. Names of days of the week, months and holidays.

Madaraka Day is celebrated on 1st of June

    1. Names of organizations and religious bodies

KANU / Catholic Mission.

    1. In abbreviation

Mr., Dr., Prof., Hon.

  1. Final punctuation Marks (End Marks).
  1. Full stop (.)

-  To end a sentence
        Peter is coming.
        - to indicate date and time in the abbreviated form
        6.6.2006 or 8.00 a.m.
        - to indicate initials
        P.M. Koech

  1. Exclamation Mark (!)

- to show command
        Quiet!
        - to show emotions (distress/surprise/awe/wonder).
        You are here! (surprise)
        Oh God! (awe)
        My toe! (distress/pain).

  1. Question Mark (?)

- used after a direct question
        Where are you going?

  1. The comma (,)
  2. Used to separate items in a list

Kamau went to the market and bought oranges, apples, tomatoes and potatoes.

  1. To indicate a pause in a sentence.

As she went home, she fainted.

  1. Used before a quotation or direct speech.

I am getting married, she said.

Activity 4

Choose the correct expressions from the choices in the circle to complete the sentences correctly.

Background Information

Correct pronunciation, effective listening and speaking skills, intensive and extensive reading and other language aspects contribute a lot in the mastery of spelling as an important language skill.Effective communication of ideas and information in writing depends largely on correct spelling of words in sentences. Mastery of spelling skills improves efficiency in writing.


Lesson Objectives:

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Spell commonly mispelt words correctly.
  • Apply spelling rules correctly.


Spelling

Spelling refers to the formation of words with letters in the correct order. Correct spelling gives the writer confidence, impresses the reader and shows efficient management of words. It is important to pay close attention to spelling because incorrect spelling hinders effective communication and sometimes ,it may change or distort the meaning of the text.

In English, the spelling of a word is often unrelated to its pronunciation.This poses a great challenge to learners and users of English as a second language.It is important therefore to master all aspect of English pronunciation to be able to spell words in sentences correctly.

Observe the pictures provided and fill the blanks by typing in a correct word that depicts what is in the picture.


1.The voters lined up in a queue to cast their votes.

  1. Our car was involved in an accident along the highway.

Vehicles moving on a highway then one crashing into another.

We stopped the game immediately the referee blew the final whistle

  1. The guest of honour addressed the gathering.
  2. Their school bus had a puncture causing them to delay.

A guest of honour wearing ceremonial garlands on the podium before the microphones, and people gathered in front of HER, with some seated in neat rows while a few are standing towards the edges.

Picture of a school bus, with some students outside and a flat tyre, with the driver getting the necessary tools e.g. jack, wheel spanner etc.

Their school bus had a puncture causing them to delay.

Activity 3


Look at the picture and suggest what happened. Use the information to answer questions in the exercises that follow.




 

Lesson Objectives:
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Write legibly and neatly.
  • Write clear and correct sentences, and organize ideas in a logical sequence.
  • Take and make intelligible notes.


Structure of a Paragraph

A paragraph is a combination of two or more sentences communicating the same information or related ideas. When writing, learners are expected to communicate effectively using a variety of sentence structures and develop paragraphs using different devices. The skill of writing using apppropriate paragraphing can be enhanced using pictures, charts,jumbled up sentences, role play and guided writing.

Activity 2
Basing on the picture, type the correct answer in the blank spaces provided.


If the answer is correct, applaud the learner but if it is wrong give encouragement to try again. Provide space for the answer.

  1. The car is _ up. (Wrecked)
  2. A person is in a _. (car)
  3. _ on the road. (glass)
  4. A car _. (accident)
  5. _ jam. (traffic)
  6. The car is _ off the road. (pushed)
  7. A _ of people (crowd

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Identify the statement that gives the overall view of the scene, by clicking on the correct statement.

Highlight the correct answer (d) A car accident.

The identified statement is what the topic sentence which can appear as a title or the first sentence in a paragraph.

Activity 3

Rearrange the sentences as instructed below.


What you have done is put the events in a logical sequence
The statements that come after the topic sentence are called supportive sentences. They tell you more about the topic sentence. The rule is that they come after the topic sentence and not before.

Activity 4:

Use the information provided to create a paragraph


This is an example of a paragraph where ideas have been organized and linked to form a kind of a story.


A picture of an accident scene below

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