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Grammar - English Form 4



BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Look at the following pictures.

These pictures represent various types of nouns.

To appreciate this lesson, take note of the following: definition of nouns, classification of nouns as well as noun derivation.

Observe the following animation

Listen to the following words as they are being read: children, a school, a ball, justice, love, Mount Kenya.

Functions of nouns in sentences


NOUNS AS SUBJECTS IN SENTENCES

Read the following sentences

The underlined words in sentences one and two are nouns while those in sentences three and four are noun phrases. A noun is a single naming word while a noun phrase has more than one word which can be an article and a noun or an article, a modifier and a noun. All the highlighted words have been used as subjects in the above sentences. The subject of a sentence refers to the person, idea, place or thing that is being talked about.

NOUNS AS OBJECTS IN SENTENCES

Let us again consider the following sentences:

Observe the following animations


The underlined words : fruits, rat, coffee and camel have been used as objects in the sentences.

An object of a sentence is the part of the sentence that receives the action of the subject.

To identify the object in a sentence, we ask the question:

'What was done or who received the action?' For example, in the sentence

We bought fruits, you should ask the question, 'What was bought?'

The answer is fruits. The word fruit is the noun used as an object in the above sentence.

Additional information on noun as object

Watch the following animation

Some sentences can have two objects

a direct object and an indirect object.

For example:
1. The boy kicked the ball to his friend.
2. Fatuma gave Pauline the book.
3. Maina bought his daughter a laptop.
4. The principal gave the students a treat.

The direct object is the direct receiver of the action.

For example, in the sentence.

The boy kicked the ball to his friend the direct object is the ball.

The indirect object answers the questions to whom or for whom.

For example, The boy kicked the ball to his friend.

In the sentence above, the indirect object is 'his friend' because it answers the question, To whom was the ball kicked?

NOUNS AS COMPLEMENTS IN SENTENCES

Complements give more information about the subject or object.


Subject Complement
:

Subject complements give more information about the subject.

Consider the following sentences: view the following animation


The subject complement must refer to the subject of the sentence which can either be a place, a person or a thing.

The subject complement comes after the various forms of the verb be

(am, is are, was, were)

or other linking verbs such as become, appear and seems.

The verb must agree in number with the subject

The subject complement is not affected by the action of the verbs.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

To appreciate this lesson, knowledge of nouns is crucial. Pronouns take the place of nouns.

Previously, you learnt about personal, possessive, reflexive, subjective, objective and demonstrative pronouns.

Pronouns are words such as I, him, she, his, ours, herself, myself, these and that.

Watch the following video.

What types of pronouns have been used in the classroom?






Objectives

By the end of this lesson you should be able to :

i. Identify the interrogatives and relative pronouns in a sentence.

ii. Correctly use interrogatives and relative pronouns to construct sentences.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS


Uses of interrogative pronouns

Whose

Read the following questions.

i.Whose birthday is it?

ii. Whose cow was stolen?

We use whose as an interrogative pronoun when the expected answer is in the possessive case.

In the question Whose birthday is it?,

the possible answers could be the person(s)

Whose birthday falls on that day for example, Halima's or Mwiti's.

These are the possessive forms.

Note that, who, whom, and whose are used when the answer is referring to a person. What

Read the following questions.

i. What are we expecting?

ii. What is she?

The possible answers to the question,'What are we expecting?'

are: good results, good rains,a bumper harvest...

The answers are in reference to a thing but not a person. In question

ii)What is she?, the pronoun 'what' refers to the profession or status in society?

The possible answers could be:'She is a doctor','a chairperson of the women's league' or 'a senator.'

Which

Read the following sentences.

i. Which are your friends?

ii. Which is the way?

iii. Which clothes are yours?

Which is used for both person and things to imply a selection of a restricted number.
For example, in question iii, 'Which clothes are yours?'

The sentence means that there is a collection of clothes

from which you select those that belong to you.

In sentences I and 2 the relative pronouns 'who' and 'which' are used to refer back to the subject.

In sentences 3 and 4, the relative pronouns 'whom' and 'whose' are used to refer back to the object.


a. The bags fell off the moving lorry.

b. They were torn.

c. The bags which fell off the moving lorry were torn.

The relative pronouns 'who' and 'which' have been used to link two clauses to avoid unnecessary repetition.

Note that when we link the two clauses using a relative pronoun, one of the sentences becomes a relative clause.

Omission of relative pronouns

In some cases, the relative pronoun can be omitted without altering the meaning of the affected sentences.Look at the following sentences.

In sentences 1.b and 2.b, the relative pronouns have been left out yet that has not altered the meaning of the sentences.

In the two instances, the relative pronouns have been used as objects in a sentence.

They can be omitted without affecting the meaning of the sentence.

Summary

In the lesson, we have learnt the following:

Interrogative pronouns are used to introduce questions.

Relative pronouns are used to refer back to the subject and object without repeating them and to link clauses.

It is important to note that:

i.That and which as relative pronouns can be used interchangeably.

ii.The difference between interrogative and relative pronouns lies in their use.

iii. We also have compound relative pronouns such as whoever, whichever, whatsoever,whomever and whosoever which are used as subjects.

iv.When relative pronouns are objects in a sentence, they can be omitted without affecting the meaning of the sentence.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

For you to appreciate this lesson, your knowledge of nouns, verbs, adjectives and participle phrases is essential.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: Identify particle phrases

Explain how particle phrases are formed

Use participle phrases correctly in sentences

Use correct sentence structures creatively.

Introduction to participle phrases

A participle phrase may be defined as a group of words that modify a noun or pronoun in a sentence.

A participle phrase begins with a present or past participle and it functions as an adjective.

Read the following sentence taking note of the underlined words.

Also pay attention to the pictures provided after each sentence.

Watch the following animation



1.Thinking the road was clear, the boy attempted to cross the road.


2. Promising not to be late, Yuma left for town.
3. Frightened by the cat, the baby started crying.
4. The principal, disappointed by the poor results, refused to reward the students.
5.Yesterday I relaxed by the poolside listening to music.

The underlined words such as: 'thinking the road was clear', 'promising not to be late', 'frightened by the cat' 'disappointed by the poor results' and 'listening to music'

are participles phrases.

A participle phrase must be introduced by a participle which is either a present participle or past participle.

For example, in the sentence: 'Thinking the road was clear, the boy attempted to cross the road.'

The word 'thinking' is the present participle of the verb think.

Likewise, in the sentence 'Frightened by the cat, the baby started crying', the word frightened is the past participle of the verb frighten.

Look at the illustration below

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

To appreciate this lesson, knowledge of sentence construction and structure is important.

This includes knowing parts of a sentence and their function, for example,

View the animation below Jane goes to school.

S v o

Mary bought a house and John bought a car

s v o s v o

The first sentence is an example of a simple sentence that has a subject, verb and an object.

On the contrary, in the second sentence, two clauses have been combined by the conjunction 'and'.

This is an example of a compound sentence.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

Identify instances of inversion, ellipsis and substitution in sentences.

Use ellipsis and substitution in sentences to avoid unnecessary repetition.

Use inversion in order to create a variety of sentences.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

Identify instances of inversion, ellipsis and substitution in sentences.

Use ellipsis and substitution in sentences to avoid unnecessary repetition.

Use inversion in order to create a variety of sentences.

What is a clause?

A clause is a group of two or more words that have a subject and a main verb.

It can either be independent or dependent.

A dependent clause is not meaningful on its own.

An independent clause is meaningful on its own.

For example,

If it rains today, we shall not go to town

Dependent clause+ independent clause

INVERSION

Inversion is the change of word order in a sentence without affecting its meaning.

It is mainly done for emphasis.

Listen to the following sentences.

Look at the two cartoons as they read the sentences below.


Note the following points about inversion in sentences


Ellipsis

Ellipsis is the intentional omission of words or phrases in order to avoid repetition, or if the meaning is pretty obvious.

Examples 1.

Fatma received a call and Kariuki also did. (receive a call).

From the second part of the sentence, it is obvious that Kariuki did receive a call, so we do not have to repeat the words.
2. She came to the office but (she) was not attended to.

In this sentence, she can be omitted because it is an instance of repetition.
3. (I) trust you are okay. ' I' can be omitted because it is obvious who the subject is.

From the above examples, you note that ellipsis can occur at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence.

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