Esoma Online Revision Resources

Writing | English Form 4

Let us now look at each item in a C.V. view the following animations 1. The Title should be attractively written in capital letter, underlined and centred CURRICULUM VITAE 2. Personal details These include: Name: Date of birth: Sex: Marital status: Nationality: Postal address: E-mail address: Mobile Phone Number: Current occupation 3. Objectives(s) State briefly what you wish to achieve. This should be in line with the kind of job or career you wish to pursue. 4. Academic and professional training Here, you should state the schools colleges or universities attended, the years, and certificates or degrees attained. Remember to indicate any outstanding awards you may have received. When writing your academic achievements, always begin with the highest level. When writing your professional training begin with the latest course attended. 5. Work experience This includes the organisations you have worked for, job title and dates of employment. Begin with the most recent working experience, giving the relevant experience in line with the advertised vacancy. 6. Responsibilities Indicate the institutions or companies you have worked for as well as the years you held particular responsibilities. Begin with your present responsibility. 7. Conferences, seminars, courses and Workshops attended. Indicate the name of the course, seminar or workshop, the town in which it was held the date and your role. 8. Skills Write down the skills you have gained that are relevant to the job being applied for, for example, good communication skills, fluency in certain languages, computer literacy, a clean driving license. 9. Hobbies/interests They must be relevant to the job being applied for or the institutions you wish to join. 10. Referees The referees are usually two or three people who know you very well and can give objective information about your character, attitude and professionalism. Note that they should not be your relatives or peers. Include their title, full name, designation, institution, telephone number and email address.


Your knowledge about sentences and paragraphs is important for you to understand and appreciate this lesson. The knowledge of extensive reading is also important.

A paraphrase may be defined as a restatement of the sense of a passage in other words. It involves rewriting a text in one’s own style without changing the meaning of the original text.

Writing of a paraphrase requires rewriting a sentence or passage in your own words while maintaining the same meaning, but using different words. Its purpose is to simplify or clarify a sentence or paragraph.


By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

a. Demonstrate competence in using a wide range of sentence structure and vocabulary to write a paraphrase.

We will now look at the paraphrase of a paragraph.


By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

a) Punctuate correctly different kinds of titles of publications.

b) Punctuate quotations correctly.

c) Use proper systems of documentation.

Format for quoting appropriately

Additional information

It is important to note that the name of the author, title of the book, the exact words from the text and the page must appear.

In addition, you must punctuate the quotations correctly.

After the name of the writer, use a comma.

Underline the title of the book and enclose the actual words by the use of speech marks. Put a full stop at the end of the quote, before the quotation marks.

The page should appear in brackets after the quoted words.


Getting a job or admission into a reputable institution today is a very competitive business.

You must be able to market yourself in a way that will impress your prospective employer or gain you admission into a prestigious institution or organization of your choice.

Apart from writing a letter of application, you also need a document that will market you further.

This document is referred to as a curriculum vitae.


By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

Use appropriate register and format in writing a curriculum vitae.

Demonstrate competence in using a wide range of sentence structures and vocabulary to write a curriculum vitae.

Curriculum Vitae


To appreciate this lesson, knowledge of intensive reading is important.

Literary appreciation skills are also crucial since they form the basis for a critical analysis of a book in order to give a well balanced evaluation.


By the end of the lesson:

you should be able to write a book review.

Definition of a book review

Consider the following titles

Plot outline

Observe the following animation

Plot is the chronological order of events or ideas.

One should consider whether the plot makes it easy for the reader to appreciate the content.

Love and Friendship


These themes are depicted in many literary works, for example, in the 'River Between', 'Romeo and Juliet', 'The Merchant of Venice' and many more.

Such works explore issues such as romantic relationships, marriage, filial love, friendship between people, parental love and agape love.



In the River Between, Karanja betrays Waiyaki since the latter has always outdone him in every aspect of their lives since their childhood.

When Nyambura falls in love with Waiyaki, Karanja betrays his friend out of jealousy so as to revenge for past hurts.

Journey motif

view the folllowing animation

Great journey

A series of sad or happy episodic adventures as a character travels.

For example, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The River and the Source by Margaret Ogola.

Corruption of morals or losing innocence

These themes involve the introduction of an innocent character to the wickedness of the adult world.

For example in the novel 'Lord of the Flies by William Golding'



Fate is a force that predestines people to behave or live in a certain way.

These peoples' lives are controlled by forces beyond their control.

Whatever these individuals do, cannot change the dierctions their lives are taking since their destinies are fixed.

For example in William Shakespear's play Macbeth, every attempt of Macbeth to continue holding on to power simply accelelates his downfall.

In William Shakespear's Romeo and Juliet, the main characters are said to be 'star crossed'.

This means that no matter what they do, their love is doomed to fail.

In Ngugi Wa Thiong'os River Between, Waiyaki the protagonist also mirrors this aspect.

His father Chege had warned him that the tribe would reject him just as they rejected Mugo the seer

and sure enough, as the story ends, Waiyaki is betrayed by the very people he is struggling to help.


Alienation, racism, gender violence, oppression, time, death, relations to the gods.

A theme is the central topic, concept or a subject that an author is pointing out.

Alienation, racism, gender violence, oppression, time, death and relations to the gods are examples of themes found in literary works.

This is only applicable to a literary work since in non-literary material, you consider the topics.

Below are other examples of common thems in literary works.

Falling from grace


When highly regarded individuals in the society are disgraced for contravening societal rules, the person may be descibed as having fallen from 'grace to grass'.

In the beginning, the character is highly regarded and respected by everyone in the community.

However, by the time the story ends, the hero has become a villain in the eyes of the community for engaging in a taboo act or doing what is abominable.

For example, Wangu Wa Makeri, a prominent Kikuyu chief fell from grace when she danced indecently.

This was a taboo according to the Kikuyu culture and sso they rejected her leadership.

This is an instance of human beings doing only what God should do and suffering the consequencies.

For example, in Tekayo, a previously respected man becomes a social outcast and dies shamefully for killing and feasting on his innocent grand children.

Sometimes a character who fights to deliver his people from oppression eventually becomes a worse oppressor than his or her predecessor.

The main character in John Ruganda’s play 'The Burdens' is a former cabinet minister who now lives in a hovel and consumes illicit liquor since he can no longer afford expensive drinks.

He ocassionally hallucinates about his glorious past.

A great mystery


These themes are depicted in works where the potagonist must accomplish the daunting task of of establishing the root cause of an unusual occurrence.

The main character is charged with the responsibility of unravelling or solving a certain mystery which could be a crime, a solution to a problem among others.

Great wars or battles


These themes explore conflicts or battles between two opposing sides.

For example, In William Shakespear's Romeo and Juliet, two families:

the Montagues and the Capulets are in conflict.

Selfless sacrifice


These themes involve a character laying down their lives for others.

This could be an enemy, a loved one, a group, humankind...name it.

The key point is that the protagonists offer themselves so as to rescue or salvage the lives of others.

In the River Between for example, Waiyaki sacrifices his life, dreams and ambitions for the sake of the tribe.

Secondly, in Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's Petals of blood, Mugo one of the characters may be regarded as a martyr since he eventually suffers for betraying the tribe.

However, everyone else is guilty too yet they pretend to be clean.

Since Mugo is courageous enough to confess his crime, he sacrifices his life to redeem the others.

Common themes in the African context

Common themes in our African context are like:

love and friendship, politics, abuse of power, love, conflict between tradition and modernity, pain and suffering, materialism, religion, conflict between generations, armed conflicts and so on and so forth.

Conclusion of the analysis

The analysis should be concluded by weighing the strengths of the book over the inherent weaknesses.

If the weaknesses outweigh the strengths, then you should not recommend the book to the target audience.

Sometimes certain books, due to the nature of the field, are given a certain threshold to which it must pass.

For example, a medical book is not allowed to have any factual errors because of the repercussions.



This is the instance where one character plays a big trick on others.

This theme is common in oral narratives. In the story of Lwanda Magere , for example, the Lang'o play a trick on the Luo people by offering a 'bride' to Lwanda Magere.

The aim of the Lang'o though is to unravel the secret behind Lwanda Magere's prowess in the battlefield in order to subdue the Luo.

Needless to say, Lwanda Magere dies and the Lang'o win the battle.

Typical format of a book review

view the following animation

Reviewed by Bakari Omar, Ben Onyango Philip Kariuki etc

Strengths and Weaknesses

A book review should capture the following aspects.

1. Plot: sequence of events as they unfold in the story. (literary); (b) organization of topics (non literary)

2. Cover design: decide whether the cover is relevant and attractive.

3. Page outline: Is there consistency in the presentation of material?

4. Binding, is it firm?

5 .Language use: symbolism, irony, imagery, diction register

6. Characters: distinguish whether the characters are major or minor and what role they are playing.

Structural weaknesses

Another aspect to be considered when evaluating language use in a work is structural weaknesses.

Establish whether there are any structural weaknesses which may distort the message.

The weaknesses could include:

Editorial errors, a disjointed plot outline and factual errors.


Everyone enjoys eating well cooked food. Look at the following dishes.

Do they appeal to your sense of sight, taste and smell?

If so, it is because someone has taken time to prepare it.

The preparations of such foods require a recipe.

For you to appreciate the following lesson on recipes, your knowledge of how to give instructions in carrying out a given task is essential.


By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

Use appropriate register and format in writing recipes


A recipe is a set of instructions with a list of ingredients for making or preparing a given meal.

These instructions contain the ingredients and methods of preparation.

Recipes should always provide complete instructions for preparing various dishes. If they do not, money, food and time could go be wasted.

In addition, recipes make it possible to have a dish taste the same each time it is prepared.

A good recipe should provide the following information:

Watch the following video clip

a ) The title of the dish to be prepared.

b ) An introduction which should state the importance of the food to be served.

c ) The ingredients should be listed in the order in which they will be used and the exact amount.

d ) This will make it easy for someone to use the recipes; it also ensures that no ingredient is left out.

e ) Specific instructions for preparing the recipe should be given clearly and in a logical order.

f ) Utensils to be used should be appropriate in size.

g ) One should observe the correct cooking temperature and other

instructions. such as simmer, blanching, chill, boil.

h ) Cooking time should be observed.

i ) The number of people to be served.

j ) Alternative ways of cooking.

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