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English Report

3.0 ENGLISH (101)


The table below shows the performance of candidates in the three papers offered in 2010 in KCSE English
Examination. Data for the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 is also given for comparison.
Table 5: Candidates Overall Performance in English (1Ol)in the last four years

Year Paper Candidature Maximum
Mean Score Standard
2007 2
273,006 80
2008 2
300,794 80
2009 2
335,415 80
2010 2
354,935 80

3.1.1 Performance in Paper 1 declined by 2.63 points from 30.75 in 2009 to 28.12 in 2010.
3.1.2 Performance in Paper 2 improved by 4.08 points from 26.99 in 2009 to 31.07 in 2010.
3.1.3 Performance in Paper 3 declined by 2.17 points from 20.81 in 2009 to 18.64 in 2010.
3.1.4 Overall performance was impacted by the double decline in papers 1 and 3. It dropped by 1.06 from
78.42 in 2009 to 77.36 in 2010.

3.2 PAPER 1 (101/1)

Question 1
You arc the Chairperson of the Environmental Club which has just been newly introduced in your school. There is going to bean official launching of the club. Write a brief spcech that you will deliver at the launch. Your speech should include the following: introduction, club officials, the objectives (aims) of the club, the activities to be carried out, conditions for membership, enrolment and any other
relevant information. (20 marks)

Question 1 required candidates to prepare a speech they would deliver at the launch of Environment Club. The content was provided. But the candidate had to know that the speech was to be delivered to a live audience and so they had to provide information on who were to be present and use conventional forms of address. They had to invent the names of the officials and perhaps the patron etc. They had to think up activities and objectives of the club given the cue provided in the name of the club.

Question 2:
Read the passage below andjill in each blank space wit/i an appropriate word. (10 marks)

I met Frank as soon as he was I from the hospital. He felt 2 to be alive. His seat-belt had kept him from going 3 the windscreen, and he had only a 4 cheek and some double-vision to indicate he 5 had a nearly fatal crash. In the weeks that followed, 6 I began to notice strange after effects. Frank forgot to return phone calls. One afternoon, while writing out payroll cheques for his staff, he repeatedly asked me the date. I watched as his pen froze over the yellow cheque-book. He would 7 flip the pages to check the spelling of a colleague's name. At the piano, he played the same note over and over again, seemingly 8 to proceed to the next. It 9 be months before any of us were willing to accept the painful 10 that his music career was over.

Expected Responses

I. Discharged
2. Lucky/fortunate
3. Through
4. Swollen/bruised
5. Had
6. However
7. Then
8. Unable
9. WouM
10. Fact/reality/truth

This was a doze test, testing the candidates ability to read with understanding, predicting the missing words using the contextual, syntactantic and discourse clues provided. Only those candidates who have mastered the English language grammar and have an adequate stock of vocabulary are at home with this kind of test.

Question 3
Tested various aspects of the received spoken or performance based language skills. These skills are essential not only for thc appreciation of the beauty, variety and stylistic deployment of language by accomplished users, but they are also integral to the intelligibility and completeness of the shared communication or experience

(iii) I would lower my voice and say them at a lower pitch/almost a whisper with an appropriate gesture or a knowing facial expression.
(iv) The last two lines conclude the argument of the poem. Therefore, to be read at a higher pitch, with more emphasis, more confidence, more slowly and more deliberately

Question 3(b)
(ii,) Read the passage below and then answer the question that follows.
It's a cold, misty December morning. You hear the sharp screeching of brakes followed by a loud bang, then screams. You rush to the scene of the crash, where you find a car overturned with a young woman and two small boys inside. The woman and one of the boys climb from the wreckage unhurt; but the other boy is pinned between the dashboard and the roof of the car, groaning in pain. Km, kru, kru, you scratch your scalp as you try to remember your lessons in first aid.
Identify any four instances of onomatopoeia in the passage. (4 marks)

The question tested the candidates knowledge of the term onomatopoeia and ability to select from the passage words that are onomatopoeia.
Expected Responses
Screeching, screams, bang, crash, groaning, scratch.
NB: Do not score for the idiophone: kit kru kru

Question 3(c)
(c) For each of the following five words, rite another word that is pronounced the same.
(i) past
(ii) aren't
(iii) hole
(iv) what
(v) male (5 marks)

Candidates were required to, first and foremost, be able to correctly pronounce the given words. Secondly, they were to supply a word that is pronounced the same as the word given in each case. This task required both comprehension and Application indeed.

Expected Response

(i) Passed
(ii) aunt
(iii) whole
(iv) watt
(v) mail

Question 3(d)
(d) For each of the following letters, provide a word in which the letter is silent.
(i) p
(ii) b
(iii) 1
(iv) n
(v) t (5 marks)

Required candidates to think of and supply words in which the letter/sound given is silent ie not intoned. This was a higher level test than in the previous item. Analysis was called for.

Expected Responses

(i) psychology, receipt/psalms coup
(ii) debt, climb, dumb, comb, doubt
(iii) calm, palm, balm, chalk
(iv) hymn, condemn, solemn
(v) listen, soften, moisten, ballet.

Question 3(e)
(e) Your school choir is rehearsing a choral verse for the school's music festival. They are making a presentation for the rest of the school so as to get some feedback.
Give four things that the listeners need to pay attention to and explain why. (8 marks)

Tested aspects of dramatic presentation the things that go into making an effective performance. Choreography harmony, tempo, projection of voice.

Expected Responses

(i) proper/clear pronunciation of words
(ii) the right volume/proper voice
(iii) the correct tone of voice
(iv) variation of voice
(v) the right gestures accompanying the performance for objective communication/liveliness
(vi) Proper voice blending to enhance the musicality
(vii) Posture the correct posture gives the feeling of confidence
(viii) Eye contact - for effective communication
(ix) The correct tempo/pace being too fast might hinder communication

3.3 PAPER 2 (101/2)

This paper marked improvement in performance. The mean rose by 4.08 points from 26.99 in the year 2009 to
31.07 in the year 2010.

Question 1 was based on a comprehension passage.
Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow
Moving to a new country can be an exciting, even exhilarating experience. lii a new environment, you somehow feel more alive: seeing new sights, eating new food, hearing the foreign sounds of a new language, and feeling a different climate against your skin stimulate your senses as never before.

Soon, however, this sensory bombardment becomes sensory overload. Suddenly, new experiences seem stressful rather than stimulating, and delight turns into discomfort. This is the phenomenon known as culture shock. Culture shock is more than jet lag or homesickness, and it affects nearly everyone who enters a new culture .- tourists, business travellers, diplomats and students alike. Although not everyone experiences culture shock in exactly the same way, many experts agree that it has roughly five stages.

In the first stage, you are excited by your new environment. You experience some simple difficulties such as trying to use the telephone or public transportation, but you consider these small challenges that you can quickly overcome. Your feelings about the new culture are positive, so you are eager to make contact with people and to try new foods.

Sooner or later, differences in behaviour and customs become more noticeable to you. This is the second stage of culture shock. Because you do not know the social customs of the new culture, you may find it difficult to make friends. For instance, you do not understand how to make "small talk," so it is hard to carry on a casual, get acquainted conversation. One day in the school cafeteria, you overhear a conversation. You understand all the words, but you do not understand the meaning. Why is everyone laughing Are they laughing at you or at some joke that you did not uaderstand Also, you area't always sure how to act while shopping. Is this store self-service or should you wait for a clerk to assist you If you buy a sweater in the wrong size, can you exchange it These are not minor challenges; they are major frustrations.

In the third stage, you no longer have positive feelings about the new culture. You feel that you have made a mistake in coming here. Making friends hasn't been easy, so you begin to feel lonely and isolated. Now you want to be with familiar people and eat familiar food. You begin to spend most of your free time with students from your home country, and you eat in restaurants that serve your native food. In fact, food becomes an obsession, and you spend a lot of time planning. shopping for, and cooking food from home.

You know that you are in the fourth stage of culture shock when you have negative feelings about almost everything. In this stage, you actively reject the new culture. You become critical, suspicious, and irritable. You believe that people are unfriendly, that your landlord is trying to cheat you, that your teachers do not like you, and that the food is making you sick. In fact, you may actually develop stomachaches, headaches, sleeplessness, lethargy, or other physical symptoms.

Finally, you reach the fifth stage. As your language skills improve, you begin to have some success in meeting people and in negotiating situations. You are able to exchange the sweater that was too small, and you can successfully chat about the weather with a stranger on the bus. Your self-confidence grows. After realizing that you cannot change your surroundings, you begin to accept the differences and tolerate them. For instance the food will never be as tasty as the food in your home country, but you are now able to eat and sometimes even enjoy many dishes. You may not like the way some people in your host country dress or behave in public, but you do not regard their clothes and behaviour as wrong just different.

In conclusion, nearly everyone moving to a new country feels some degree of culture shock. Symptoms may vary, and not all people experience all five stages. Newcomers with a strong support group may feel at home immediately in the new culture, while others may take mouths to feel comfortable. Staying in touch with friends and family, keeping a positive attitude, and, above all, learning the language as soon as possible are ways to overcome the difficulties and frustrations of adapting to life in a new land.

From: Writing Academic English. Alice Oshima and Ann Rogue, Pearson Education, Longman (2006)
(a) According to the passage, what is the meaning of culture shock (2 marks)

This tested knowledge i.e. the definition of �Culture shock' as given in the passage. Candidates were able to get this one correct.

Expected Response

Culture shock is the stress/discomfort/sensory overload that a person experiences when he/she arrives in a new culture/environment/country.
(b) Identify any three factors that can cause culture shock. (3 marks)

This required candidates to identify three factors that contribute to towards culture shock. This question tested comprehension ability to understand.

Expected Responses

- food
- language
- varied ways of doing things/shopping/transport system/using telephone
- social behavior/customs
- mode of dressing
- seeing new sights
- feeling a different kind of climate
(c,) What evidence does the author give to show "you understand all the words, but you do not
understand the meaning (2 marks)

This required candidates to identify evidence that supports the proposition "You understand all the words, but you do not understand the meaning."
The question presented some difficulty to the candidates. This is perhaps because the statement follows rather than precedes the evidence. Such analysis was too much for most of the candidates. Teachers should train their
candidates to read and analyze a variety of passages. This calls for exposure to as many types of passages as possible.

Expected Responses

(i) miss the jokes
(ii) can't make "small talk"
(iii) make blunders
(iv) can't shop efficiently
(d) Give any three features that characterize a person in the worst state of culture shock. (3 marks)

This was a direct question requiring a little more than knowledge. The facts were set out systematically and one only needed to identify the specific paragraph to extract the information required. Accordingly, most candidates got this one correctly.

Expected Responses

The person
(i) has negative feelings about everything/critical
(ii) actively rejects the new culture/suspicious/people unfriendly/landlord cheating
(iii) is and irritable/teachers don't like you/sickness/headache/physical symptoms (last sentence paragraph 5).
(e) in note fo.nn, give the difficuhies experienced in the second stage of culture shock. (4 marks)

Candidates were able to source the information and answer correctly in note form.

Expected Response

(i) The challenge of making friends
(ii) difficulty in making "small talk"/carrying on a conversation
(iii) difficulty in understanding how language is used/jokes
(iv) difficulty in shopping/understanding the shopping system.
Why is making friends helpful in overcoming culture shock (2 marks)

This was a question requiring inference and proved difficult for the candidates. Anything that is not expressly stated gives candidates a hard time. This is a symptom of ill-preparation. Teachers should do a little more than giving candidates passages to read and answer questions. They should analyze the passages and help the candidates to discover the different approaches and styles authors use to communicate their message.

Expected Responses

You are able to socialize easily/ask for help/your confidence improves/adapting quickly/develop positive attitude/learning the new language.

(g) Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage: (3 marks)

This item tested vocabulary in context. The skill required was analysis. A large proportion of the candidates scored zero in this question.

Expected Responses

(i) alive alert/away/aware/responsive/rejuvenated/active/animated/spirited/having vigour/elated/happy/joval/excited
(ii) obsession something you are crazy about/a preoccupation/an addiction/ something you like a lot.
(iii) negotiating communicating fluently/establishing commonness of meaning/becoming idiomatic in expression/getting understood or understanding fully/convincing.
(Ii) Staying in touch with friends and family, keeping a positive attitude, and, above all, learning the language as soon as possible are ways to overcome the difficulties and frustrations of adapting to life in a new land.
(Rewrite the sentence above without changing the meaning. Begin. You ) (1 mark)

This required candidates to rewrite the given sentence paraphrase. Most candidates could not do the task correctly. The sentence was long and the candidates could not sustain the grammaticality nor completeness of the meaning.

Expected Response

You can/will overcome the difficulties and frustrations of adapting to life in a new land by staying in touch with friends and family, keeping a positive attitude and above all, learning the language as soon as possible.

Question 2 was a context task based on the compulsory set text. Candidates needed to have read and understood the plot of the novel if they were to respond to the tasks appropriately and adequately. The Chief Examiner reported gaps in knowledge of the set text indicating many candidates had not read the text.

Read the excerpt below and then answer the questions that follow:
Again Nyambura glanced over her shoulder in the direction of her home. She wondered whether to stop or to go on. She heard Waiyaki's voice.
"I am going to see Kamau."
�And I Johana. My father has sent me to him to tell him to come to our home today."
�Then we can walk together," he suggested.
They moved on slowly. He was thinking of this girl. Muthoni had been the cause of their first meeting. Then Nyambura had been a fairly tall girl with well-formed features. Now he could see the woman in her under the bright moonlight.

"What are you going to do there" she asked. Waiyaki thought: What am I going to do there It was then that it occurred to him that he did not want to see Kamau. Not now. He too thought of the people and what they would say now if they saw them walking together. Above them the moon gazed and lit the whole land. Nyambura was not circumcised. But this was not a crime. Something passed between them as two human beings, untainted with religion, social conventions or any traditions.
"Just to see Kamau and the family."

Nyambura felt a little angry. She thought; their activities. They came to a place where their ways parted. They stopped there and stood as if held together by something outside themselves. Perhaps it was the magic of the moon that held them both rooted to the spot. Waiyaki wanted to dance the magic and ritual of the moon. His heart beat hard, beating out the darkiwss. And Nyambura stood there looking as if she were the embodiment of serene beauty, symbolised by the flooding moon and the peace around.
Suddenly Waiyaki felt as if the burning desires of his heart would be soothed if only he could touch her, just touch her hand or her hair. He controlled himself. A strange uneasiness began to creep through him.
"Are you still teaching"
"I have not seen your school."
�You should come some day. And why not tomorrow in the afternoon just after school closes I could take you round."

(a) Why did Waiyaki want to see Kasnau at that time of the evening (2 marks)

This was a recall question calling for knowledge of the plot.

Expected Response

Waiyaki had been unable to sleep/many thoughts about his life passed through his mind. He felt that he needed to talk to someone. He decided to go to Makuyu and talk with Kamau.
(bY) Muthoni had been the cause of their first meeting. Explain how Muthoni had been the cause of
Nyambura and waiyaki 's first meeting, (4 marks)

This also required knowledge of the plot. Majority of the candidates were able to mostly get the first two questions.

Expected Response

Muthoni, Nyambura's sister, had run away to her aunt's home to be circumcised (against her father's wish). Afler the circumcision her wound would not heal. Waiyaki used to visit her regularly and during one of these visits Muthoni expressed her wish to see her sister Nyambura. Waiyaki decided to look for Nyambura (and request her to try and see Muthoni on her sick bed. He sought her and found her drawing water from River Honia.

(c) What indicates that both Nyambura and Waiyaki are uncomfortable in the circumstances they find
themselves in this excerpt (4 marks)

This question required analysis of behaviour and utterances of the characters to arrive at the conclusion that they were uncomfortable in the circumstances.
Expected Response
- Nyambura keeps looking over her shoulder in the direction of her home fearing she might be seen talking to Waiyaki Nyambura wondered whether to stop or go.
- Waiyaki kept on thinking about what people would say if they saw them walking together.
- Waiyaki was at a loss and did not know what to say
- Waiyaki would have wanted to touch Nyambura, just touch her hand or her hair but he had to control himself.
- Waiyaki is said to feel a strange uneasiness
- Waiyaki' heart beat hard.
(ci) Identify and explain any two character traits that Nyambura and Waiyaki share in this excerpt.
(4 marks)

This question also required candidates to analyze the shared character traits of the two characters as seen in the excerpt.

Expected Responses

- Both are cautious/sensitive/precautious. None wants to be seen talking to the other by people from their
different camps.
- Both are disloyal/disobedient/traitorous. None wants to do anything that is against the beliefs of their leaders.
Nyambura is disloyal to her father and his Christian beliefs.
- Waiyaki is loyal to the people and the traditions of the tribe.
- Both are loving/friendly to their circumstances/something passed between them.
- Do not want to be seen together.
Even though the excerpt had ample evidence, the two questions 2 (c) and 2 (d) proved difficult for the
(e,) "What are you going to do there" she asked.
(Rewrite in reported speech) ( mark)

This required candidates to rewrite the given sentence. This time the sentence was very short and the candidates were able to score correctly.

Expected Response

She asked him what he was going to do there/She asked (me) what I was going to do there/Nyambura asked
Waiyaki what he was going to do there.
Ji Briefly describe aspects of the themes of the Novel that come through in this excerpt. (6 marks)

This question proved difficult for the candidates for the simple reason that it required information beyond the excerpt. It looked out to the entire novel expecting candidates to isolate aspects of the themes that are highlighted in the excerpt. Because most candidates had a shaky command of the plot of the novel, performance on this item was dismal.

Expected Responses

(i) The theme of love
In this passage the budding love between Waiyaki and Nyambura is witnessed. Although they do not declare that they love one another it is evident that they have deep feelings for one another. Waiyaki's heart beat hard,beating out the darkness and he looks at Nyambura as the embodiment of serene beauty/something passed between them.
Others Christianity/Religion Nyambura not being circumcised for she is a Christianlsomething passed....
Tradition Waiyaki also sees Nyambura as uncircumcised even if he did not mind/something passed between them.

(ii) Theme of Education
Education is an important theme in the novel. In this except. Nyambura asks Waiyaki whether he is still teaching. Waiyaki invites her to his school the following day after classes.

(iii) Theme of conflict
The conflict between the Traditionalists and the Christians. Waiyaki who is seen as the representative of the traditionalists is afraid that he might be seen talking to an uncircumcised girl while Nyambura is also uneasy about being seen talking with Waiyaki. She keeps glancing over her shoulder, afraid that her father might see her walking with Waiyaki.

Betrayal Waiyaki talking to Nyambura & vice versa was a betrayal to me tribe and Christian religion respectively.
Alienation Waiyaki thinks Nyambura being uncircumcised is not a crime.
Teachers should insist on candidates purchasing and reading the set books.
(g) Identify and illustrate any two aspects of style used in the excerpt. (4 marks)

This question required candidates to identify' and illustrate aspects of style used in the excerpt.

Questions on style always give problems to candidates. This was not an exception.
Teachers should teach aspects of style in each set text and illustrate them with specific examples to help candidates to understand and apply the knowledge.

Expected Responses

(i) The author uses personification.
The moon is said to be awake/gaze. These are attributes that are only associated with human beings.
(ii) Dialogue conversation rect Speech
The dialogue between Waiyaki and Nyambura when she asks him whether he is still teaching and he replies that he is still teaching and invites her to his school/any dialogue. This is used to create interest and make the story interactive.

(iii) Omniscient narration
The author describes in detail what emotions go through both Nyambura and Waiyaki as they walk alongside
each other. Nyambura for example thinks that Waiyaki wants to see Kabonyi so that they can discuss their activities while Waiyaki on the other hand is thinking of how he could touch her hand or her hair. (iv) Vivid description
The author describes the effect of the moon on the lovers. The whole land is lit by the moon and seems to gaze at the two.

(v) Authorial Intrusion
"Above them the moon gazed and lit the whole land". (vi) Symbolism Magic of the moon
(vii) Irony Waiyaki accepts an uncircumcised girl being a traditionist (viii) Metaphor Woman in Nyambura/Magic of the moon.


Question 3 was based on the poem reproduced below.
"Song of the wagon driver". B.S. Johson
My first love was a ten-ton truck
They gave me when I started,
And though she played the bitch with me
I grieved when we were parted.
Since then I've had a dozen more,
The wound was quick to heal,
And now it's easier to say
I'm married to my wheel.
I've trunked it north, I've trunked it south,
On wagons good and bad,
But none was ever really like
The first I ever had.
The life is hard, the hours are long,
Sometimes I cease to feel,
But I go on, for it seems to me
I'm married to my wheel.
Often I think of my home and kids,
Out on the road at night,
And think of taking a local job
Provided the money's right.
Two nights a week I see my wife
And eat a decent meal,
But otherwise, for all my life,
I'm married to my wheel.
(From The Earth is Ours: Poems for Secondary Schools.
Selected by Ian Gordon)
(a) Briefly explain what the poem is about. (2 marks)

This required candidates to briefly explain what the poem was about. It anticipated a short description of what the message or subject matter of the poem was. Candidates were expected to use the marks allowed for the task to realize not much writing was called for.
It was reported that candidates imposed interpretations that were far fetched and refused to see the poem was a simple description of a long distance truck driver and the dilemma he faced.
Teachers need to explain to candidates that not all poems have a surface and a deeper meaning. Trying to look for a deeper meaning where there is none only makes poetry a monster.

Expected Response

The poem is about a long distance driver who is tied to his job/grieves for his first truck/has inadequate time for his family/unable to leave and do something else.
(b) What is contradictory about the persona's relationship with his first truck (2 marks)

Candidates were required to identify  the contradiction in the persona's relationship with his first truck i.e. that "though it played the bitch with him, he still grieved when they were parted."

Expected Response

The first truck seems to have given the person a lot of trouble, yet he cannot get it out of his system. He says he grieved when he "lost" it. (contrast must come out eg. Choice ofjob or family)

(c) The persona is facing a real dilemma. Which is it (2 marks)

This question required the candidates to identify the dilemma that the persona faced. Only high achievers were able to get this item correctly, meaning that even the term �dilemma' was not accessible to many.

Expected Responses

The dilemma is that his work is tough and it keeps him away from his family, but he is unable to choose something less stressful.
(d} Identify and illustrate any two literary devices that the poet uses. (4 marks)

This question was well done. It seems literary devices pertaining to poetry have been taught. Candidates were able to apply such knowledge to the task.

Expected Responses

(i) Personification. The persona refers to his first truck as his "first love". The pronoun "She" is used to describe it and he talks about "when we parted" as if he had been separated from another person/she played the bitch/married.
(ii) Metaphor: The persona describes his feelings about the loss of the first truck as a wound. It shows how sad he became when he could no longer drive that truck.
(iii) Repetition; Repetition of the line "I'm married to my wheel" emphasizes his obsession with trucks/Trunked ... Trunked.
(iv) Rhyme- lines two and four of each stanza are rhymed. (b,d) heal---wheel.
(v) Alliteration: ten-ton truck/when we were
Both rhyme and alliteration enhance the musicality of the poem and contribute To emphasis of the message.
(Any two 4 marks)

(vi) Irony truck played bitch but he grieves for it when they part.
(vii) Simile like the pst one.
(e) What makes the persona's job demanding
Give your answer in note form. (4 marks)

Candidates were able to select pertinent facts and compose notes.

Expected Response
(i) travels long distances
(ii) seems to dehumanize him "... I cease to feel"
(iii) is sometimes lonely
(iv) doesn't have proper meals
(v) keeps him away from his family
(vi) works long hours/forced to work at night.
Explain the meaning of the following lines:
(i) Sometimes I cease to feel (2 marks)

(ii) Provided the money's right (2 marks)

(g) Explain the meaning of the words below as used in the poem.
(0 grieved
(1 mark)

(ii) trunked
(1 mark)

This was a test of comprehension of the phrases used in the passage. Together with the item (g) which tested the use of individual words, they tested the candidate's ability to focus on discrete items and analyze their meaning in context.

Expected Responses

(i) Some times I am numb/I do things mechanically like a robot/I am robbed of my ability to sense and think.
(ii) If I can get a good salary If it pays well or better
(g) (i) grieved sorrowed/(deeply) saddened/mourned/moaned (ii) drunken driven/hauled/steered/drove.

Question 4 tested various grammatical competencies of the candidates.
(aZ) Rewrite the following sentences in Direct Speech. (2 marks)

(i) The tourist exclaimed that Kenya was a beautiful country.
(ii) Halima told James to go where she was.
This was an application question checking candidate's ability to render the reported sentences into the original direct speech, including the requisite punctuation. Majority of the candidates got this item correctly. Those who did not score correctly mostly did so out of carelessness.

Expected Responses

(i) "What a beautiful country Kenya is!" the tourist exclaimed.
The tourist exclaimed, "What a beautiful country Kenya is!"
The tourist exclaimed, "Kenya is a beautiful country!"
(ii) "James, come here, "Halima said Halima said, "James, come here."
"James", "said Halima, "come here."
(hj Rewrite each sentence below to make it communicate more sensibly. (2 marks)

(i) They left the field full of sweat.
(ii) Powerthl and comfortable, the buyer really liked the car.
This required candidates to apply grammatical knowledge to rewrite the given sentences to remove ambiguity occasioned by misplacement of related segments.
This proved difficult for most candidates. Teachers need to address these aspects.

Expected Responses

(i) Full of sweat/Sweaty,/Sweating, they left the field.
(ii) The buyer really liked the powerful and comfortable car.
Powerful and comfortable, the car was really liked by the buyer/The buyer really liked the car because/since/as
The buyer really 1 car:/ powerful and comfortable.

(c,) Fill in the blank spaces with an appropriate pronoun. (3 marks)

(i) The children and ought to leave immediately if we want to arrive there before dark.
(ii) The organisers have invited Mwamburi and but I don't intend to go.
(iii) Since she obtained the highest grade, the school should give the award to no one else hut
This item required candidates to apply knowledge of the behaviour of pronouns depending on whether they occur in subject or object slots in a sentence. Most candidates were able to score correctly.

Expected Responses

(i) We/I
(ii) me/us
(iii) her
(d) Fill in the blank spaces with the correct Jonn of/he verb in brackets. (3 marks)

(i) A flock of birds (fly) away from this lake every week.
(ii) I wondered why they had (sing) that particular song.
(iii) The ball must have been (hit) too hard.
This item tested tense formation and was done well.

Expected Responses

(i) flies/flew/has been flying/had been flying/was flying
(ii) sung
(iii) hit
(e,) Rewrite each of the following sentences as instructed. (3 marks)

(i) It is amazing that the couple takes care of so many orphans.
(Begin: That
(ii) What we need in Kenya is patriotism.
(End. in Kenya.)
(iii) My students don't drink. My students don't smoke.
Vain into one sentence using �neither .
This section tested paraphrase. Candidates were expected to rewrite according to instructions given, making the necessary grammatical adjustments required while retaining the meaning of the sentences. This was well done.

Expected Responses

(i) That the couple takes care of so many orphans is amazing/That so many orphans are taken care of by the
couple is amazing
(ii) Patriotism is what we need/is needed in Kenya
We need patriotism in Kenya
(iii) My students neither drink nor smoke
(iv) Fill in each blank space with the appropriate word, (2 marks)
(i) I stopped the child from chewing a of �ass.
(ii) The doctor told her to take the of medicine according to the prescription.
This item tested collocation, the word that is normally used in conjunction with the words given. �Whi\e it was easy to get the word in (ii), candidates found (i) difficult.

Expected Responses

(i) blade
(ii) dose/dosage

3.4 PAPER 3 (101/3)

Performance in this paper declined. The mean dropped by 2.17 p;oints from 20.8 un the year 2009 to 18.64 in the year 2010.

Question 1 tested creative composition where candidates use their imagination to create a piece of writing in response to the given topic.

Question 1
(a) Write a composition illustrating the fact that crime does not pay.
Candidates were required to write a composition illustrating the fact that �crime does not pay.' Candidates were expected to compose a story where the prot�g� eventually gets into trouble or gets on the wrong side of the law as a result of criminal activities. Most stories were largely uncredible; lacked creativity.
h) Write a composition explaining how young people can overcome tribalism in Kenya.
Candidates were required to present a discursive or explanatory piece of writing explaining how young people could play a role in overcoming tribalism in the country.

Candidates dwelt more on adducing facts of what the youth could do at the expense of - composition language use, paragraphing and cohesion. Scores were not very high, and since this was the more popular option, the final ovcrall score for question 1 tended to be depressed.

Teachers are advised to teach composition writing in its entirety - various types of composition and especially sentence emphasis and plot or argument development.

Question 2
The Compulsory Set Text (20 marks)

Henrik Ibsen, An Enemy of the People.
Write an essay supporting the proposition that: "Katherine Stockn3ann is the embodiment of reason in Ibsen's play

An Enemy of the People.

It required candidates to write an essay arguing for the proposition that Katherine Stockmann was indeed the embodiment of reason in the play An Enemy of the People. Candidates needed to know the plot well enough and select incidents involving the character and how she responds to the situations and other characters; what she says and does typiring her reasonableness.

It may seem candidates had not expected Katherine to be featured prominently. They regarded her as a minor and therefore had not paid attention to her character. This resulted in low achievement on this compulsory question; further aggravating the situation.

Teachers should teach all aspects of the set texts and pay attention to all characters as they are in the plot for specific purposes. Take out their role and the play shall not stand.

Question 3 comprised the optional set texts, viz, the play, the short stories and the novel.
(aZ) The Short Story

Macmillan (Ed.), Haifa Day and other stories
Using 1-lonwana's short stone �Hands of the Blacks for illustration, write an essay on racial prejudice.
3 (a) required candidates to write an essay on �racial prejudice' with specific reference to the short story �Hands of the Blacks.'

Candidates needed to analyze the content of the story and select the relevant illustrations supporting the existence of racial prejudice, such as, the perceptions of the various characters in the story.
This proved an uphill task for majority of candidates who chose this option. Most gave narration without conscious comment to bring out prejudice.

(b,) Drama
John Ruganda, Shreds of Tenderness
"Sibling rivalry should never be allowed to get out of hand"
Using the characters in John Ruganda's play Shreds of Tenderness write an essay in support of this statement.
3 (b) Candidates were required to adduce evidence that in the play Shreds f Tenderness sibling rivalry is taken to excessive, even murderous proportions! They had to show that this kind of situation should not have been if the protagonists exercised moderation.

Most candidates simply discussed the existence of sibling rivalry without showing or bringing out the �excessive' suggested by �out of hand'. Whether it was ignorance of the expression or more incompetence is not clear.
(c) The Novel Velma Potlard. Homestretch
"East or west, home is best."

Drawing examples from the lives of Edith and David in Homestretch, write an essay illustrating the
truth of this statement.

3 (c) Candidates were required to interpret the saying �East or West, home is best' and bring to bear its meaning on the experiences of David and Edith in Homestretch. It was expected candidates would be aware of the plot, how characters sold off and migrated to England; what befell them while in England; htw they returned home to Jamaica and what their conclusion of their experience was, especially with regard to thc saying given.

Very few candidates attempted this option. Those who did, did not bring out the contrast clearly. Nor did they develop it to lead to the conclusion encapsulated in the saying.

Teachers are advised to give full treatment to the various facets of the set books. As it is candidates are lefi to grope for information and fall prey to profiteering �guides writers.






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