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Development of industry - History Form 2

Development of Industry

In this lesson, we are going to study various sources of energy. Energy is the ability to do work. It is used to provide heat and drive machines. The earliest sources of energy were;

  • Wood
  • Wind
  • Water

Windmill a source of energy

Early Sources of energy

Various sources of energy were used before and during the industrial revolution. These are wood, wind, water, coal, oil and electricity


Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  •  Identify sources of energy
  •  State uses of various sources of energy

Wood

Wood was the first source and was the most common source of energy. It came into use after human beings discovered the use of fire during the Middle Stone Age.

Cooking using wood as a source of energy.

Uses of Wood

Wood energy is used in various ways. Some of these are shown in the video provided. Click on the video below to view the various uses of wood energy.


Uses of Wood

Wood energy is used in various ways. Some of these are shown in the video provided. Click on the video below to view the various uses of wood energy

1. Wood is used for Cooking food

2. It is also used for Providing heat

3. It can also be used for Lighting at night

4. Baking clay pots and other tools is another use for wood energy

5. It can also be used for Smelting Iron and hardening tools

Uses of Wood

Wood energy is used in various ways. Some of these are shown in the video provided. Click on the video below to view the various uses of wood energy




Advantages of Wood energy

Wood as a source of energy has various advantages. They include:

  • Wood is readily available
  • It is relatively cheap and
  • It is renewable

Disadvantages of wood energy

The disadvantages of wood energy include:

  • Cutting down of trees which leads to deforestation and desertification
  • Is inefficient because it provides limited amount of energy
  • It produces smoke which pollutes the environment

Animation shows cutting of trees


The animation provided indicates that the forest is the catchment area of this river. The river volume reduces due to the constant cutting of trees.


Disadvantages of wood energy

The disadvantages of wood energy include:

  • Cutting down of trees which leads to deforestation and desertification
  • Is inefficient because it provides limited amount of energy
  • It produces smoke which pollutes the environment

The two pictures depicts effects of deforestation


The animation provided indicates that the forest is the catchment area of this river. The river volume reduces due to the constant cutting of trees.



Wind

Wind is air that moves. It can be used to create energy when it comes into contact with objects. Wind energy was used to winnow and dry grains. It was also used to turn windmills and propel sailing boats and ships. Wind can be harnessed to produce electricity. It is one of the cheapest sources of energy because it is readily and freely available.

Animation of a windmill

Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy

Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy

Just like wood, Wind has its own advantages and disadvantages. Its advantages are:


  • It is readily and freely available
  • It does not pollute the environment
  • It is a renewable source of energy

However wind as a source of energy is unreliable because it depends on natural forces.

Water

Water as a source of energy has been in use for a long time. When water falls over a cliff or fall, it generates energy. This energy was harnessed to turn water wheels and later on turbines. Water a source of energy is relatively cheap and does not pollute the environment. However, it is not reliable when the water levels drop due to drought.

Uses of various sources of energy

We have discussed the early sources of energy. Let us now turn our attention to modern sources of energy.

Electricity, a source of modern energy

Coal

Coal is an example of modern source of energy. It is a compact or dark brown carboneous rock. It is made up of decomposed vegetative material. There are four types of coal, namely;


  • Peat
  • Lignite
  • Bituminous
  • Anthracite

A steam train powered by coal.



Some of the uses of coal include to provide light, heat water and drive locomotives. it is also used as a raw material in the chemical industry. Coal as a source of energy has its disadvantages such as.It is bulky and not found in all places It is also costly when mining and transportating. Coal also pollutes the environment and is non-renewable source of energy.

An example of coal.

Oil

Oil or petroleum is another source of energy. It is used for lighting in homes and public buildings. It was and is still used to power vehicles, ships and machinery. Click on the movie to view the products of oil and their uses.


Paraffin is used for lighting while Liquidified petroleum gas is used for cooking. Petrol on the other hand is used in powering locomotives while Tar a product of oil is used in road construction. Aviation oil is used for powering aeroplanes and Greece is used as a lubricant for industrial machinery.

A stove that uses paraffin


Advantages and Disadvantages of Oil

Oil has advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages are. It has a wide variety of uses and It is cheaper to transport. It is also comparatively cheap.

Oil as car fuel

 

However it has disadvantages such as It causes environmental pollution for instance in cases of due to oil spillage. Oil extraction is very expensive and it is a non-renewable source of energy It is also highly inflammable.

Environmental Pollution


Electricity

Electricity is power produced by electric dynamo. Initially, the dynamo used water, coal, oil and steam to produce electricity. Today electricity as a source of energy can be generated from geothermal, nuclear and solar energy.



Uses of Electricity

Click on the play button to view the uses of electricity.

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ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICITY

1. It is a clean source of energy 2. It is renewable 3. It is convenient and efficient because it can be switched on and off 4. It has various sources of production e.g. water, petrol and atomic DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICITY 1. It relies on natural supplies e.g. water 2. It can be dangerous to property and human beings if not properly handled 3. It is expensive in terms of generation and distribution 4. Installation and maintenance of electricity requires specialized personnel

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electricity

Electricity as a source of energy has the following advantages; It is a clean source of energy and is renewable. It is also convenient and efficient because it can be switched on and off. Electricity can be generated from many sources such as water, petrol and atomic.

An electric switch


Some disadvantages of electricity as a source of energy include; It can be dangerous to property and human beings if not properly handled. It is also expensive in terms of generation and distribution. Installation and maintenance of electricity requires specialized personnel.

Kindaruma Hydro Electric Power Station Kenya where power is generated.


Scientific revolution

The scientific revolution refers to a period in history when many discoveries were made. Early Scientific development occurred in areas that were centers of early civilization for example Egypt, Greece, China and India. The Egyptians were the earliest mathematicians which enabled them to make the pyramids.

An Egyptian Pyramid



 


The Chinese were great astronomers who invented the first magnetic compass. Indians invented the decimal system and also invented a cure for the snake bites.

Illustration of solar system


The exercise provided will help you remember what we learnt in the previous lesson.

Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

 Define the term Scientific Revolution.

 Identify the Scientific inventions is Agriculture, Industry and Medicine.

 Discuss the effects of Scientific Revolution in Agriculture, Industry and Medicine.

Scientific Inventions


There were several inventions made in the field of agriculture, industry and medicine.

Illustration of Jethro Tull's seed drill.

Inventions in Agriculture

Some of the inventions in agriculture include the art of cross-breeding animals invented by Robert Bakewell (1725-1795), invention of the seed drill that was invented by Jethro Tulls (1720) , that of mechanical thresher Andrew Meikle (1786) and reaper invented by Cyrus McComic (1837)

Example of cross-bled cow

Impact of scientific invention on Agriculture

Invention of agriculture had various effects which include


  • increase in food production
  • unemployment due to increased use of farm machines
  • diversification of Agriculture
  • degradation of soil due to constant use of chemicals and fertilizers
  • incurable diseases due to consumption of chemically treated foods

A tea picking machine

Inventions in industry

Advances in Science facilitated the development in industries. Some of the major inventions in the field of industry include;


  • Invention of the electric dynamo to produce electricity by Michael Farady (1831).
  • The invention of the flying shuttle by John Kay in 1733 used in spinning.
  • Invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 which was used to separate seeds from cotton

    illustration of a cotton gin

Inventions in industry

Advances in Science facilitated the development in industries. Some of the major inventions in the field of industry include;

  • Invention of the electric dynamo to produce electricity by Michael Farady (1831).
  • The invention of the flying shuttle by John Kay in 1733 used in spinning.
  • Invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 which was used to separate seeds from cotton

Illustration of a cotton gin

Impact of scientific invention on Industry

Inventions in Medicine

Scientific inventions and discoveries in the field of medicine assisted in the improvement of health. Did you know that small pox could be prevented by vaccination? This discovery was made by Edward Jenner between the year 1749 and 1823.This was when the first successful vaccination was made.

Child with facial effects of small pox

Other inventions made in medicine were; William Harvey (1578-1657) Discovered the circulation of blood with the heart as the pump. Edward Jenner (1749-1823) Discovered that small pox could be prevented by vaccination (the 1st successful vaccination). Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) Discovered that the female anopheles mosquito carried the parasites that transmitted Malaria (in India). Alexander Flemming (1843-1955) Discovered that penicillin could cure a wide range of diseases caused by bacteria. Dr. Christian Bernard Performed the first successful trans-plant in South Africa.

patient undergoing a Kidney Dyalisis

 

Impact of scientific invention on Medicine

The impact that medine include;


  • Alleviation of human suffering
  • Increased Life-expectancy due to improved health
  • Creation of job opportunities.

Kenyatta National Hospital


It has also had negative effects such as Increased environmental pollution due to careless disposal of used medical equipments. Other effects include;


  • drug abuse
  • Over-dependency on medicine leading to weakened immune system
  • Increased immorality due to easy availability of birth control pills.

A drug addict


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