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Development of transport and Communication

Transport is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. Transport is classified according to the mode it takes that is water, land and air. It is also categorized into traditional and modern forms. In this lesson, we are going to learn about traditional forms of transport.



Lesson objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;

 Define the term transport

 Explain the traditional means of transport



Traditional forms of transport

Traditional forms of transport can be divided into land transport and water transport. Click on the play button to view the video clip.


Land transport

Land transport refers to transport that takes place on land. In the olden days, it included Human poterage and animal transport.

Human Porterage

Human porterage was the earliest form of land transport. It involved carrying of goods by people on their backs, head, shoulders and hands.

Animal Transport

Animal transport involves the use of animals to carry people and goods. The animals used were referred to as pack animals.There were various pack animals that were used as means of transport. They include Donkeys, Oxen, Horses, Dogs, Camels, Mules, Elephants, Water buffalo, Reinder, Llama and Alpac.

Water Transport


Water Transport

The earliest forms of water transport included the use of tree trunks, rafts, canoes, oar, driven boats and sailing ships.

Animation of a canoe used in the olden days.

Tree trunk and Raft

Tree trunk was a log that floated on water and a person could cling on it as it moved downstream. On the other hand a raft was a simple floating structure made up of several logs tied together. It could be propelled upstream by use of long pole

An animation of a man sitting on a floating log

Canoes and sailing ships

Canoes and sailing ships were advanced early forms of water transport. A canoe was a big log hallowed out on one side to accommodate passengers and goods.It was propelled using oars or paddles. Sailing ships were advanced boats that could be propelled by wind using a sail. The invention of sailing ships promoted trade and exploration

Illustration of a canoe and a sailing ship

Background Information

In our previous lesson we discussed the traditional forms of transport which used land and water as a medium. We said that the forms of land transport were Human porterage and Animal transport. We also said that the various forms of water transport include:
tree trunks, rafts,canoes and sailing ships


Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

 Describe developments in modern means of transport

 Analyze the impact of modern means of transport

Development of modern means of transport

In this lesson, We are going to learn about the modern means of transport. There are various means of modern transport. They include road, water, rail and air transport. In this lesson, we shall pay particular attention to road and rail transport.

Air transport, an example of modern means of transport

 

Inventions in Road Transport

The invention of the wheel enhanced the development of the roads. The Romans built straight roads with hard surface all over Europe and North Africa by 300BC. When the Roman Empire fell, the roads were neglected until the 18th Century when engineers in Europe developed better roads.

An illustration of a road under construction

Modes of Transport

The development of roads led to improvement of the modes of transport. This included the development of bicycles, motorcycle and motor vehicle.

ADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORT

 It is cheaper compared to other forms of transport  Roads are flexible and link many parts of a country.  It is faster compared to rail and water transport  It is the commonest and easiest form of transport. DISADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORT  It leads to loss of lives due to high number of accidents on road  Pollution of air caused by exhaust fumes leads to environmental degradation.  Vehicles carry limited amount of load  Roads are restricted to specific areas.  Construction of roads is expensive.

Impact of Road Transport

Road transport has affected the lives of people in various ways.These include:-

  • It has led to Promotion of trade and Growth of towns
  • It has also led to Creation of employment opportunities and Promotion of industrialization
  • Unfortunately, road transport has led to Pollution of the environment

Rail Transport

The earliest railway was made of wood in the 16th century. Wooden rails were used in Britain and Germany. Iron rails were first used in the early 19th century. Early railway carriages were drawn by horses and donkeys

An illustration of an acient train drawn by horses

Inventions of Rail Transport

Many engineers were involved in the development of locomotive engine for example in 1829, Stephenson and his son Robert built an engine called rocket, which had a speed of 48km per hour. Over the years there has been an improvement on efficiency and speed of trains.

A train

Impact of modern means of transport

Modern means of transport have led to both positive and negative effects on the human society. Some of them are:

1. Promotion of local and international trade

2. Growth of urban centres

3. Creation of employment opportunities

4. Diffusion of ideas due to easy movement of people

5. Increase in rural urban migration

6. Loss of human lives due to accidents

7. Growth of international terrorism

8. Environmental pollution

Impact of modern means of transport

IMPACT OF MODERN FORMS OF TRANSPORT

Promoted local and international trade Growth of urban centre Creation of employment opportunities revolutionary warfare Diffusion of ideas due early movement of people Increase in rural urban migration Loss of human lives due to accidents Growth of international terrorism Environmental pollution

Traditional forms of communication

Communication is the exchange of ideas, messages, information and instructions between two or more parties. In this lesson, we are going to discuss the various forms of traditional means of communication.

People communicating



.

Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;


  • Identify different types of traditional forms of communication
  • Describe the traditional means of communication

Smoke Signal

One of the traditional forms of communication was smoke signal. Smoke signal was used to warn people of impending danger for example external attacks. This was done by lighting fire on top of a hill. Click on the play button to view smoke signal.



Drum beats

Another form of traditonal communication was drum beats which were used to communicate different messages to the communities. These messages included the following,
Calling for a meeting at the rulers palace, announcement of death, summoning warriors, wedding ceremony and arrival of strangers.
Click on the play button to view drum beating.


Messengers

These were trusted runners who were sent with either verbal or written messages from one party to another. In most cases, it was from the king to his subjects. An example of a runner was Phidippides who ran from Marathon to Athens to deliver a message from his King to that of Athens. He covered a distance of 42 kilometres. The marathon race is named in his honour. Click on the play button to view early runners.


Horn blowing

Horn blowing was yet another form of communication. The horns used were from special animals such as the antelopes. In most African communities, horn blowing was used to mark the beginning of circumcision ceremonies. They were also used to Call for meeting of council of elders, Summon warriors during external attacks and also announce death of a king.
Click on the play button to view horn blowing.


Screams, cries and shouts


Screams, cries and shouts

Some communities also used screams to convey different messages. The most common messages were,

  • announcement of death,
  • distress call for help during attacks
  • good news for example wedding and birth of a child

written messages on scroll and stone tablets

Written messages were also used in the olden days. They were inform of pictures and inscription. The materials used included;

i. Patchment: These were made from dried animal skin.

ii. Scrolls: These were sheets of paper which were rolled up around a wooden bar or ivory. They were made from materials such as dried papyrus reeds. Scrolls were used by Romans, Asians, Jews, Hebrews and the Chinese.

Illustration of a scroll



iii. Stone tablets: These were made from wet clay which after drying left a permanent impression

Limitations of traditional forms of communication

These forms of communication had some limitations which include;


  • Messages sent by screaming could not be sent over a wide area
  • Messages could easily be misunderstood
  • Written messages were limited to literate people
  • Smoke messages did not work well during the wet and windy season
  • Messengers/runners were slow and consumed a lot of time

  • Messengers could deliver wrong messages
  • They could be attacked by wild animals as they ran to deliver messages
  • Horn blowing required expertise to blow
  • Drum beats could be disrupted by strong winds

A messenger running to deliver a message

DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL FORMS OF COMMUNICATION The following are some disadvantages of traditional forms of communication Messages sent by screaming could not be sent over a wide area Messages could easily be misunderstood Written messages were limited to literate people Smoke messages did not work well during the wet season Messengers/runners were slow and consumed a lot of time Messengers could run into the dangers of delivering wrong messages They could be attacked by wild animals as they ran to deliver messages Horn blowing requited expertise Drum beats could be disrupted by strong winds

Modern means of communication

In this lesson, we are going to study modern means of communication.

Animation of various forms of modern communication


Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to;

 Identify the modern means of communication

 Describe the modern means of communication

 Analyse the impact of modern means of communication




Telecommunication

Modern means of communication is also called Telecommunication because it involves sending or receiving of messages over long distances. Examples of Telecommunication include the following:

  • Telephone and cell phone
  •  Television
  •  Radio
  •  Telegraph
  • Electronic mail (e-mail)
  •  Facsimile (fax)
  •  Telex
  •  Pager
    • Television, an example of modern means of communication

      Telecommunication

      Telecommunication

      Telephone

      A telephone is an instrument that relays sound waves over a long distance using electric wires. It consists of a microphone and a receiver mounted on a hand set. A mobile phone is a similar device that has been invented recently that does not require electric wires in transmitting the soundwaves.

      A photograph of a lady using a mobile phone

      Telex and Fax

      Telex and fax are modern means of communication that transmit coded electrical signals.

      A fax machine


      Internet and e-mail

      Internet is computer based global information network that links thousands of computers throughout the world using telephone lines. On the other hand electronic mail is a system of transmitting data or text files from one computer to another over an intranet or the internet through a modem. This is a form of sending messages using a computer connected to the internet.

      Effects of Modern forms of communication



      Effects of Modern forms of communication

      Modern means of communication have various effects which include enhancing cultural exchange and spread of ideas. It has reduced the world into a global village. Another effect is that it has made it possible for information to be stored permanently.

      Office with some modern equipment


       


      Other effects include:


      • Promotion of cultural exchange and spread of idea
      • Improvement of security
      • Creation of employment opportunities
      • Permanent storage of information.
      • Turned the world into a global village
      • Improvement and diversification on of entertainment
      • Promoted international crime e.g. drug trafficking and terrorism.
      • Enhancement of education.
      • Addicted to some devises such as TV and internet
      • Advancement of warfare for example use of satellite guided missiles.
      • Promotion of immorality

      Print Media

      In this lesson we are going to discuss the modern means of communication. One of them is Print Media. Print media refers to all that is written and published which provides information. These include newspapers, magazines, journals, books and newsletters.

      An example of a magazine

      BACKGROUND INFORMATION

      In our previous lesson, we discussed modern means of communication. These are; The telephone and cell phone Television Radio Telegraph E-mail Fax Telex Pager Internet

      LESSON OBJECTIVES

      By the end of the lesson you should be able to  Identify the modern means of communication  Describe the modern means of communication  Analyse the impact of modern means of communication

      Types of Newspapers

      Types of Newspapers

      Newspapers play significant role in the dissemination of information. A newspaper is an unbound publication containing primarily current events and advertisements issued at frequent intervals. A newspaper contains some of the following feature articles;


      • News
      • Commentaries
      • Reviews
      • Editorials
      • Advertisements

      There are different types of newspapers which include daily newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals.

      Some local newspapers

      Newspapers

      Daily Newspapers print at least one edition every weekday. Examples of daily newspapers are Daily Nation, The Standard, The People Daily, Taifa Leo, The Monitor among others in Kenya. In other countries daily newspapers include the Los Angeles Times in USA and the Toronto Star in Canada.

      Example of a newspaper

      Magazines

      Magazines are normally published on weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis. They provide specialized information on particular issues. Unlike daily newspapers, magazines are normally bound. Examples of magazines are;
      The Kenya Gazette, Readers Digest, Parents, True Love, Drum, Eve and The Finance. It is important to note that with the current technology, it is possible to read magazines on-line.

      Examples of magazines

      Journals and Periodicals

      Journals and Periodicals

      Both periodicals and journals are publications that are produced at regular intervals. They target professionals and special interest groups. Examples of these are;


      • Review of African Political Economy
      • East African Journal of Social Sciences
      • East African Medical Journal
      • Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
      • The British Medical Journal
      • The Career

      Impact of print media

      Print media has played a major role in peoples' lives. It has positive effects such as, it is Informative on various issues. It is also a source of entertainment and storage of information. Print media also Promotes trade.

      Getting information from a newspaper.



      Print media has various limitations in that it is limited to those who are literate and is also expensive.Some print media has pornographic material which may bring about moral decay. It can also addictive such as newspapers and magazines Print media could also give biased information
      .

      Print media can addictive as portrayed in the animation.

       

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