KCSE ONLINE

Esoma Online Revision Resources

Order this CD Today to Experience the Full Multimedia State of the Art Technology!

Early agriculture in Egypt and Mesopotamia

The early man was a hunter and gatherer. As man evolved through the Stone Age, he made important discoveries one of which was domestication of animals he earlier hunted for food. This was the beginning of agriculture.

Animation of man hunting and gathering fruits.


Another major development was crop farming which began around 6000 BC. Earlier on, man had depended on certain wild plants and berries.

Rice farming

Early Agriculture in Egypt

Agriculture in Egypt was practiced along river Nile since Egypt was a desert. It is said to have started between 5000 and 4000 BC.

Map showing the nile valley where agiculture began


Lesson Objectives

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Identify the factors that led to the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia

2. Explain the development of early agriculture in Egypt















Factors that led to the development of Agriculture in Egypt.

Several factors led to the development of early agriculture in Egypt:

1. River Nile which provided water for irrigation

2. Fertile silt deposited in the fields during floods by river Nile and its tributaries

3. Wheat and barley were found growing wildly

4. Invention of agricultural tools such as hoes and ox drawn plough

5. Use of the shadoof irrigation

Farm tools

Tilling of land using Ox-driven plough

Effects of early Agriculture in Egypt

There were several effects of early agriculture in Egypt:

1. increased food production which led to increase in population

2. settled life

3. increased in trade due to surplus food

4.  development of urban centers like Memphis, Thebes and Aswan. The map provided in the next page shows these towns.


Urban centers


5. specialization in other activities like weaving, basketry, pottery and tool making

6. discovery of writing, arithmetic, geometry and use of the calendar. This enabled the Egyptians to predict seasons and measure the farms

7. increase agricultural production supported a new class of people for example the kings, priests and soldiers

Early Agriculture in Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers, i.e. Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers were important in the development of agriculture. Mesopotamia is part of the present day Iraq. Food production in Mesopotamia began around 8000 BC and it was introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau and the Egyptians. The Sumerians developed skills and techniques for controlling flood waters. The map provided shows fertile crescent.

The map shows Mesopotamia and the fertile crescent.


EARLY AGRICULTURE IN MESOPOTAMIA

Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers, i.e. Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers were important in the development of agriculture. Mesopotamia is part of the present day Iraq. Food production in Mesopotamia began around 8000 BC and it was introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau and the Egyptians

The Sumerians developed skills and techniques for controlling flood waters


The maps shows Mesopotamia and the fertile crescent. 

Factors that led to the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia

Several factors led to the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia.

1. Availability of indigenous crops for example wheat, dates and barley

2. Domestication of  animals for example  goats, sheep and cattle for food

3.  Rivers Tigris and Euphrates deposited fertile silt during the floods

4.  The use of canal irrigation to grow crops.

5.  The Sumerians developed skills and techniques for controlling flood waters, for example, they build dykes, ditches and canals to drain water from swampy areas.

6.  The invention of ox drawn ploughs and seed drills

7.  The invention of the wheel facilitated transportation of farm produce

8.  Increased demand for food due to increased population

Effects of early Agriculture in Mesopotamia

Early agriculture had the following effects:

1. resulted to settled life

2. increased food production resulting in increase in population

3. emergency of urban centres for example Kish, Erindu, Uruk, Nippur, Babylon and Ur.

4. the development of trade

5. promotion of religious activities

6. emergence of rules and regulations to govern people

7. development of writing and arithmetic to help keep records. The writing developed in Mesopotamia was called cuneiform.

8. Development of farm implements such as seed drill, the hoe and ox-driven plough

9. invention of the wheel

The Agrarian Revolution

Agrarian Revolution refers to the time when sudden and radical change in agricultural practices took place.

Use of tractors in farming

Lesson Objective

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Describe the Agarian revolution in Britain and U.S.A.









Agrarian revolution involved changes in:-

1. Use of machines

2. Enlargement of farms

3. Scientific methods of farming

4. Scientific methods of processing foods including preservation and refrigeration

Tractor ploughing large track of land

Agrarian revolution in Britain

Agrarian Revolution began in Britain then spread to the rest of the world. Before the revolution, agriculture was practiced on small scale using simple tools like sticks, wooden hoes and wooden ploughs. They mainly practiced mono cropping, ie they grew only one type of crop in the same place every year.

Map of Great Britain


Factors that influenced Agrarian evolution in Britain

The agrarian revolution in Britain was caused the following factors

1. demand for food by the growing urban population

2. demand for agricultural raw materials for textile industry

3. the invention of horse drawn seed drill  by Jethro Tull

4. land consolidation and enclosure system

5. selective bleeding of livestock which led to increased animal products

6. introduction of new farming tools

7. use of fertilizers and crop rotation in farming

 

5. Another factor was selective bleeding

Grade cows

6. Another factor was introduction of new farming tools

Plough

7. Another factor was application of new methods of farming for example use of fertilizers and crop rotation.

 

Fertilizer

8. Another factor was land enclosure systems by fencing

Land enclosure had various disadvantages:-

1. Landlessness among peasants

2. Rural Urban migration as peasants went to towns in search of alternative livelihood

3. Led to emigrants to other new lands such as USA, Australia and New Zealand

4. Exploitation of poor farmers.

Establishment of the Royal Agricultural Society in 1838 was another factor that led to agrarian revolution in Britain. This society published journals which disseminated new ideas and techniques of farming.

Effects of Agrarian revolution

Effects of Agrarian revolution in Britain include;

1. Improved methods of farming that led to increased food production

2. Increase in population

3. diversification of agriculture. Crops like clover, potatoes, beans, maize and citrus fruits were grown

4.those who lost land became landless. Landlessness led to unemployment and migratin to other parts of the world.

5.Improved road networks and transport systems

6.emergence of class of rich people in the society

7. promotion of international trade

4. Peasants became landless and were forced to move to towns 

5. Mechanization of farming led to unemployment. As a result, jobless people moved to towns to get jobs 

6. Establishment of large scale farming to replace subsistence farming created a class of landless people as some became farm laborers while others moved to towns and mines to look for employment.

7. It resulted to the landless peasants migrating to other parts of the world eg Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand

8 It led to improvement of transport system for example road and railways

Improved road

9 It enhanced research and scientific innovations to cater for the increased needs of farmers

10 It promoted industrialization as it provided the required raw materials to the industries. Machines were used to process agricultural produce

An industry.

11. It led to the rise of a class of rich people who specialized in agriculture

12. It promoted both local and international trade

13. The price of the land in Britain increased considerably

14. It resulted to improved standards of living

Agrarian revolution in U.S.A

Agrarian revolution rapidly spread to other places. One of the places where it spread to was U.S.A

Map of U.S.A

Background information

It is important to review the previous lesson by looking at the highlights of agrarian revolution in Britain.The agrarian revolution in Britain was caused by some of the following factors;

1. high demand for food by the growing urban population

2. great demand for agricultural raw materials for many modern and improved textile factories

3. mechanization introduced by Jethro Tull, especially the invention of horse drawn seed drill


Lesson objectives

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. identify the factors that led to the development of agriculture in USA

2. explain how agrarian revolution developed

3. discuss the effects of development of agriculture in USA

Factors that led to the development of agriculture in USA

Agrarian revolution did not only take place in Britain, but also spread to other areas. An example is agrarian revolution in the USA. The factors that led to the development of agriculture in USA include

1. land enclosure system in Britain that left many people landless. This made them to move to America where they got involved in agriculture

2. religious / political differences in Britain and other parts of Europe such as German, France etc forced many Europeans to migrate and settle in America


3. laborers and craftsmen from Britain migrated to USA in search of better lives

4. relocation of prisoners who found an opportunity in farming

Other factors that contributed to agarian revolution in USA included The teaching of agricultural economics, discovery of the preservation methods and government assistance in the form of grants.

It is also important to note that the development of Agriculture in USA existed even before the coming of the Europeans.

5. The teaching of agricultural economics, i.e. use of agricultural fertilizers and introduction of the spinning wheel.

6. discovery of the preservation methods

7. government assistance in the form of grants

Modern farming

Development

The development of agriculture was gradual. It is important to note that agriculture existed in America even before the coming of Europeans. The indigenous people used to grow crops such as

1. maize

2. yams

3. tobacco

4. coco

5. pepper

6.beans

In the 17th century, European settlers started to establish settlement in North America. This was due to favorable climate in USA. With increased migration to USA, the agrarian revolution started in the 18th century. It was characterized by modern plantations, estate farming, crop joining, and the use of hybrid seeds, animals and farm machinery. Another notable feature of agrarian revolution in USA was the introduction of new technology in farming. In 1863, the homesteads act legalized individual land ownership.

A video clip of mechanized farming. A combine harvester.

Effects of Agrarian revolution in U.S.A

Agrarian revolution had various effects. Some of these are;

1. food shortage was common due to harsh climate or failure in rainfall

2. population increase

3. diversification of agriculture as indigenous crops were improved besides animal husbandry

4. these changes gave rise to more research and scientific innovation

5. increased industrialization as many factories were opened to process agricultural products

 

Factory processing agricultural products

6. The expansion in agricultural production led to increase in trade between the USA and Western Europe

The expansion in agricultural production led to increase in trade between the USA and Western Europe

Trade between USA and Europe

The food situation in Africa and other Third World Countries

The term Third World refers to less developed countries most of which are found in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

These countries have some common characteristics. They;

1.were once colonized

2.have weak economies.

3. experience constant food shortages.

4. rely on the developed countries for aid.

5. some political instabilities.

6. have chronic food shortages.

Third world countries in most cases are unable to feed their populations and often rely on food relief from international organizations.

The food situation in Africa and other Third World Countries

Lesson Objectives

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

1. Identify the causes of food shortages in Africa and the rest of the Third World.

2. Discuss the effects of food shortages in Africa and the rest of the Third World.

3. Discuss the remedies of food shortage in Africa and the rest of the Third World

People receiving relief food

Factors contributing to food shortages in Third World countries

Several factors have contributed to food shortages in Third World countries. These include:

1. High rate of population growth in the Third World compared to the rate of food production.

Family

2. Poor methods of farming:

3. Inadequate funds for agricultural practices

4. Adverse climatic conditions

5. Natural calamities such as draught and floods

Dead animals due to drought

6. Desertification.

7. Over-emphasis on cash crops:

8. Rural-urban migration leading to shortage of labour on the farms

9. Political instability which affects agricultural production

10. Poor infrastructure for example roads and railways

Pot holed road

11. Pests and diseases which affect food production

12. Poor and inadequate storage facilities for storage of surplus produce.

13. HIV and AIDS and other tropical diseases that reduce productivity in labour force

14. Poor economic planning

15. Neglect of indigenous drought-resistance crops

Effects of food shortage in Africa and other Third World countries

Food shortage has led to devastating effects in the Third World countries. These include:

1. Loss of lives

A graveyard

2. Increasing suffering among the people for example malnourished mothers will deliver sickly and weak children.

3. Social problems in the society for example raiding neighboring communities.

4. Rise in number of refugees as people flee their countries due to drought and famine.

Refugee camp

5. Under-development because a lot of money is used on importation of food.

6. Dependence on food aid from developed countries.

Relief food


7. Unemployment due to collapse of the agricultural industries.

Remedies to food shortage in the Third World

Third World countries have taken several steps to alleviate the problem food shortage;

1. Introduction of new methods of farming which have resulted to increased production.

Inter cropping


2. More land has been brought under irrigation to counter the inadequate rainfall. Click on play button to view movie on irrigation .

 

3. More land has been reclaimed hence increasing arable land.

4. Good storage facilities have been built to minimize the loses.

A cold room


5. Government should formulate better food policies. This enhances utilization of available land.

6. Governments should intervene to stop civil strife by peaceful means. This will ensure that the resources in those countries are used effectively.

7. Mobilization of funds by the government to boost agricultural production.

some of the crops that can be grown with funding to farmers


8. Farmers should be encouraged to grow drought resistant crops such as sorghum, yams, millet and cassava.

9. Developing countries should improve their transport networks so that farm produce can be transported easily to the market.

Good road network

10. Establishments of co-operative society which assist the farmers in accessing credit facilities, marketing produce and getting farm inputs.

 

 

The clip shows irrigation taking place.

Steps taken by the Kenyan Government to solve food shortage


1. Extensive research has been carried out in research institutions for example the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). This has led to the production of hybrid crops like maize. Other institutions include I C I PE (International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology), International Livestock Research Institute (I L R I)


2. Genetically engineered crops and animals which have been introduced in the Kenyan agricultural sector. For example bananas that are resistant to pests and diseases have been developed by Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and K A R I.

Genetically engineered banana


3. Establishment of Agricultural Training Institutions to train experts like agricultural officers, veterinary doctors and horticulture experts. Examples of such institution are J K U A T and University of Nairobi.



4. The government has introduced the teaching of agriculture in the school curriculum.


5. The government has educated people on the need for family planning.

6. The government has formulated a food security policy to enhance production in the country.

Order this CD Today to Experience the Full Multimedia State of the Art Technology!

For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Test the Sample e-Content link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer.

Sample Coursework e-Content CD

Other Goodies for KCSE ONLINE Members!

Coursework e-Content CD covers all the topics for a particular class per year and costs 1200/- ( Per Subject per Class ).

Purchase Online and have the CD sent to your nearest Parcel Service. Pay the amount to Patrick 0721806317 by M-PESA then provide your address for delivery of the Parcel. Alternatively, you can use BUY GOODS TILL NUMBER 827208 Ask for clarification if you get stuck.

Install ADOBE Flash Player for Best Results

For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Test the link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer.

Search

Subject Menu