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Welcome

Home Science may seem like a totally new area to you, since there is no subject known as 'Home Science' in the Primary School Curriculum.However, you actually covered it under Science and this includes topics such as, the Human Body, Health Education, Foods and Nutrition, among others.

Just as you enjoyed learning the above topics in Science while in Primary School, I am sure you will enjoy learning Home Science as a subject on its own in Secondary School.

Sewing Tools and Equipment

The following sub-topics will be covered in this topic:

1) Basic sewing tools and equipment

2) The sewing machine

Introduction to Home Science


Introduction

Needlework requires the use of some special tools and equipment which are categorized into two main groups:

(i) Small (ii) Large

And are needed for:-

bullet Measuring

bullet Cutting

bullet Transferring pattern markings

bullet Sewing

bullet Pressing

bullet Storage

bullet Others

Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:


  • State factors to consider when choosing different basic sewing tools
    and equipment.

  • Describe how to use and care for basic sewing tools and equipment.

Measuring Tools

Tape Measure


Choice

The tape measure should:


  • Be clearly marked on both sides upto 150cm.

  • Be woven and plastic coated to avoid fraying and stretching.

  • Have metal ends.

Use and Care


  • Remove from the work while cutting out; it can be cut accidentally.

  • Roll up when not in use.

Measuring Gauge



Choice

It should:


  • Be firm.

  • Be clearly matched at right angles.

  • Have several measurements marked.

Use and Care


  • Used for measuring small width.

  • Store after use.

Meter Stick

Choice of a Meter Stick

It should be:


  • Made of smooth wood or plastic.

  • Marked clearly.

Use and Care


  • Used to measure long straight lines.

Hem Marker


Click on a tab below to view either the choice or use of a hem marker


Choice


Use and Care

Choice


Can be made from manila or cardboard.

Use and Care


Used for marking hem depths to ensure even size.

CUTTING OUT TOOLS

Dressmaker's shears

bullet Pinking shears

bullet Embroidery scissors

bullet Buttonhole scissors

bullet Paper scissors

bullet Dressmaker's pins

bullet Seam ripper

bullet Table worktop

Dressmaker's Shears


Choice


  • Should be rust free (stainless steel)

  • Sharp

  • Firmly hinged

  • Comfortable handle with one hole large enough for 2 or more fingers

  • One blade should be pointed

  • Long blade ,at least 15cm

Use and Care


  • Oil the hinges regularly

  • Hold correctly

  • Do not chop

  • Wipe after use

  • Do not use for cutting hair, paper, thread or for snipping

Pinking Shears


Choice


  • Made of rustless metal(stainless steel)

  • Sharp

  • Firmly hinged

  • Comfortable handle with one hole large enough for 2 or more fingers

  • Long blade ,at least 15cm

  • Is serrated

Use and Care


  • Used for neatening edges especially on open seams, on materials that do not fray.

Embroidery Scissors

Choice


  • Small

  • Sharp fine pointed blades

Use and care


  • Cutting threads, snipping

  • Cutting buttonholes

Paper Scissors


Choice


  • Smaller in size than the cutting out shears

  • Not very sharp

Use and Care


  • Used for cutting out paper patterns.

Dressmaker's Pins

Choice


  • Assorted lengths

  • Fine and sharp

  • Made of stainless steel

  • Buy those with big heads

Use and Care


  • Store in a pin cushion or in a small box.

  • Avoid scattering.

  • Keep them dry and free from rust.

Seam Ripper


Choice


  • The blade should be sharp.

  • It should have a cover to protect the sharp point.

Use and Care


  • Used for removing unwanted stitches and cutting button holes.

  • Do not drop.

  • Store in the needlework box when not in use.

Table Top


Choice


  • Should be large enough for laying the pattern pieces out.

  • Comfortable height for the user.

  • Smooth and flat not to spoil the fabric.

  • Should not be polished.

Use and Care


  • Dust well before placing work.

  • Do not scratch with sharp objects such as tracing wheel.

  • Do not stain with carbon.

TRANSFERRING PATTERN MARKINGS

Tailor's chalk

bullet Tracing wheel

bullet Dressmaker's carbon paper

bullet Pencils

Tailor's Chalk


Choice


  • Comes in different shapes

  • Buy assorted colours

Use and Care


  • Used for marking patterns

  • Do not drop, it will break

  • Store in the needle work box

Tracing Wheel


Choice


  • The edge should be well serrated.

  • The wheel should be firmly fixed.

  • Use carbon colour closest to that of the fabric.

  • Wooden handles are more durable than plastic handles.

Use and Care


  • Used for transferring pattern markings with dressmaker's carbon
    .

Dressmaker's Carbon Paper

Choice


  • Choose different colours

  • Should be big in size

Use and Care


  • Used with tracing wheel for transferring patterns.

  • Do not press hard while using tracing wheel as it will tear.

  • Fold and keep well.

Pencils


Choice


  • Choose dark strong pencils.

Use and Care


  • For drawing patterns.

SEWING TOOLS

Needles

bullet Sharps

bullet Betweens

bullet Crewels

Sharps Needle


Choice


  • Have round eyes

  • Should be fine

  • Sharp

  • Eye should be smooth

  • Easy to thread

  • Assorted sizes; the higher the number the finer the needle

Use and Care


  • Use correctly

  • Used for ordinary sewing

  • Should be kept in a pin cushion

Betweens Needle


Choice


  • Have round eyes

  • Should be fine

  • Sharp

  • Eye should be smooth

  • Easy to thread

  • Assorted sizes; the higher the number the finer the needle.

  • Shorter and sharper than sharps

Use and Care


  • Use correctly

  • Fine needles

  • Used for ordinary sewing

  • Should be kept in a pin cushion

  • Also used for quilting

Crewels Needle

Choice


  • Should be fine

  • Sharp

  • Eye should be smooth

  • Easy to thread

  • Assorted sizes; the higher the number the finer the needle

  • The eyes are oval in shape and larger

Use and Care


  • Used for embroidery

  • Use correctly

  • Should be kept in a pin cushion

PRESSING EQUIPMENT

Irons 

bullet Ironing board

Irons


Choice


  • Made of non rusting material

  • Medium weight

  • Smooth sole

  • Pointed toe to reach fullness

  • If electric, should be thermostatic.

Use and Care


  • Used to press work after each stage of construction

  • Use right temperature for every fabric

  • Wipe before use

  • Do not drop

  • Occasionally clean thoroughly

  • Oil hinges of charcoal iron to prevent rusting

Ironing Board


Choice


  • Should be adjustable

  • Should be well padded

  • Should be stable on the ground

  • Should have a loose cover

Use and Care


  • Used to place work when pressing

  • Adjust to comfortable height

  • Remove and wash cover regularly

  • Fold and protect from dust when not in use

Sleeve Board

Choice


Similar to ironing board but small

Use and Care


Used for processing small shapes articles such as cuffs and sleeves

Pressing Cloth


Click on a tab below to view either the choice or use of a pressing cloth


Choice


Use and Care

Choice


Choose lint free clothes that are closely woven

Use and Care


Used for damping and wetting during pressing.
bullet
Wash and store after use.

STORAGE EQUIPMENT

Drawers

bullet Wardrobes

bullet Hangers


<break



Drawers


Choice


  • Large enough to carry the work

  • Have smooth finishing

Use and Care


  • For storing all needlework

  • Should be lined with a clean paper or cloth

Wardrobes


Choice


  • Should have a smooth finish

  • Should be lockable

  • Should have a rod or nail for hanging

Use and Care


  • Used for hanging complete and incomplete garments

  • Clean regularly and place moth balls occasionally

Hangers

Choice


  • Have assorted sizes

  • Should be made of smooth wood plastic or metal

  • Should be strong and wide

Use and Care


  • Used for hanging complete or incomplete garments.

  • Dust occasionally to keep clean.

OTHERS

Thimble

Stiletto

bullet Bodkin

bullet Embroidery loop

bullet Pressing cloth

bullet Sleeve board


Thimble


Choice

  • Should fit on the middle finger.
  • Metal thimbles last longer, especially those made of stainless steel.
  • Ensure that the metal ones do not have rough edges that may damage the thread and fabrics.

Choice and Care

  • It is used to push the needle through the fabric.
  • It also protects the finger from needle pricks.
  • Wear on the correct finger.
  • Store in the needlework box when not in use.

Stiletto


Choice


  • Must be sharp

  • Should be thick enough to leave holes on the fabric

  • Should be smooth not to spoil the fabric

Use and Care


  • Used for making holes and eyelets

  • Do not drop as the point will become blunt

Bodkin

Choice


  • Eye must be large.

  • Point should be blunt so that it does not pierce through the work
    when it is in use.

Use and Care


  • Used for threading elastic cords, ribbons and tapes through casings
    or eyelets.

  • Store in the needlework box.

Embroidery Loop


Choice


  • Choose according to the work .

Sleeve Board

Choice


  • Similar to ironing board but small

Use and Care


  • Used for pressing small shaped articles such as cuffs and sleeves

Pressing Cloth

Choice


  • Choose lint free clothes that are closely woven

Use and Care


  • Used for dampening when pressing.

  • Wash and store after use.

Introduction

A sewing machine is a large sewing equipment designed to make stitches. It makes sewing quicker and more efficient.

Objective

By the end of the lesson you should be able to name parts of the sewing machine and their functions.

Types of Sewing Machines

Hand machine

bullet Treadle machine

bullet Electric machine

Hand Machine

Hand Machine


  • It is a simple machine to operate as it is done manually at the
    speed of the person operating.

  • It is portable and easy to carry.

  • Balance wheel is rotated by hand.

  • One hand rotates the hand wheel while the other guides the material.

Hand Machine

The following video clip shows the working of a hand machine:


Click on the PLAY button to view the video

Treadle Machine

Treadle Machine


  • Feet rotate the hand wheel

  • Both hands are free to guide the work

  • Bulky and hence takes up a lot of storage space

  • A motor can be fixed onto it to make it electric

Treadle Machine

The following video clip shows the working of a treadle machine:


Click on the PLAY button to view the video

Electric Machine

Electric Machine


  • Balance wheel is rotated using electricity.

  • Very fast because both hands are free to guide the work.

  • Expensive to purchase.

  • Some are portable and others are very bulky.

Electric Machine

The following video clip shows the working of an electric machine:


Click on the PLAY button to view the video

Parts of a Sewing Machine



Choosing a sewing machine


  • Consider the cost in relation to the work.

  • Consider the machine in relation to its work, that is, do not buy a
    domestic machine for commercial purposes.

  • Buy from a reliable dealer who will be able to service and supply spare parts.

  • Machine should have an instruction manual.

Care of the sewing machine


  • Ensure servicing of machines regularly.

  • Store the machine while covered to avoid dust from entering.

  • Clean and oil it regularly.

  • Learners should use the machine under supervision.

  • Do not machine over pins to avoid breaking the needle.

Stitches

Introduction

Home Science is an applied multi-disciplinary science which aims at improving the quality of life and well being of an individual, family and community.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:


  • Define Home Science.

  • Explain the importance of Home Science.

  • Relate Home Science to various career opportunities.

Classification of stitches
Stitches are classified into two groups:

Roll the mouse over the words: Permanent and Temporary for additional information.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:


  • Classify stitches.

  • Describe how to work out different types of stitches



 



Joining stitches


These are stitches which are used to hold two or more layers of fabric together permanently. They include:

  • Machine stitches
  • Over sewing
  • Faggotting

Machine Stitches


 

Over Sewing


Faggotting Stitches


 

Neatening Stitches

These are stitches which are used to finish raw edges. They include:

  • Loop stitches
  • Button hole stitches
  • Machine zigzag

Loop Stitches


Buttonhole Stitches


Machine Zigzag


Insert HO1-111034Video

Decorative stitches


These are embroidery stitches worked to add beauty to a garment or article. They include:

  • Stem stitch
  • Chain stitch
  • Satin stitch
  • Cross stitch
  • French knot

Stem Stitch


Chain Stitch


Satin Stitch


Cross Stitch


French Note


 

Even Tackings


Long and Short Tackings


Diagonal Tackings



Tailor Tacks


Disciplines in Home Science

Maternal child care
Home care
Textiles
Clothing
Health education
Consumer education

Maternal Child Care

It deals with child development from conception to childhood with special attention to the physical, emotional and social development of the child.


A mother breastfeeding a baby

Home Care

It takes care of the individual, the home and the environment through planning, organizing and using available resources efficiently.


Tidy Room


Untidy Room

Textiles

It is the study of fibres which are made into fabrics.


A textile industry

Clothing

It deals with clothing construction and maintenance.

Health Education

It promotes health by changing people's behaviour, attitude and practices. This is done through personal hygiene, environmental hygiene and care of the sick at home.


A person washing hands after visiting the toilet

Consumer Education

It makes people aware of the available goods and services in the market, their choice and use.


Variety of liquid soaps




A bill board with some information on food

Importance of Home Science

The importance of Home Science to:

The Individual
The Family
The Community



The Individual


  • Makes a person to be self reliant by giving one skills to
    start income generating activities.

  • It is a foundation for further education and training.

  • Helps one to acquire skills to enhance quality of life by managing scarce resources.

  • Prepares an individual to take care of personal hygiene, food,
    clothing and health.

The Family

Home Science helps the family to:


  • Practice and administer First Aid in case of accidents and illnesses.

  • Maintain high standards of living.

  • Improve its economic status.

The Community


  • Skills acquired create employment opportunities
    .

  • Ensures a healthy community therefore reducing illness and death.

  • Promotes positive environmental practices.
  • Produces role models for the community to emulate.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Home Science leads to diverse career opportunities such as:

Teacher
Interior Designer
Chef
Air Hostess
Dietician
Community Health Worker
Fashion Designer
Entrepreneur
Researcher
Textile Engineer


Teacher

Chef

This is the chief cook of a large kitchen staff. He/she is in charge of menu creation, staff management and business aspects related to the kitchen.

Air Host/ Hostess

Also known as flight steward or cabin crew member. He/she ensures that passengers have a comfortable journey on the flight.

Dietician

An expert in Food and Nutrition. He/she promotes good health through proper eating; supervives the preparation of food, develops modified diets, participates in related research and educates individuals on good nutritional habits.

Community Health Worker

A member of a community who is chosen by community members to provide basic health and medical care to the community.

Fashion Designer

A Fashion Designer creates original garments as well as those that follow established fashion trends. He/she studies trends, sketches designs of clothing and accessories, selects colours and fabrics, and oversees the final product of their designs.

Enterpreneur

A person who identifies a business opportunity, assesses the risks involved, organises the necessary resources to start and run a successful business.

Researcher

A person who trys to discover, interprete and develop methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.

Textile Engineer

The textile engineer specialises in the study of fibres and new textile production methods. The profession includes turning fibre into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products.

Interior Designer

This profession is concerned with anything that is found inside a space/room, that is, walls, windows, doors, finishes, textures, light and furnishings. The interior designer uses these elements to develop a functional, safe and aesthetically pleasing space/ room for use.

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