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Establishment of colonial rule in Kenya

In this Topic we shall learn about the response of the people of Kenya to British invasion and occupation. Some Kenyan societies resisted the British. They include the Bukusu, Gusii and Somali, Agiryama. In this lesson we shall pay particular interest to the Nandi resistance.

Koitalel Arap Samoei the Nandi leader


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

(a) Explain African response to British invasion of Kenya.

(b) Explain the Nandi response to British invasion of their territory.


Quiz

In this lesson we have learnt the response of the Nandi to British invasion and occupation. To evaluate yourself on what you have learnt, attempt the following exercise by filling in the correct answers in the blank spaces provided in the passage

The response of the Nandi to British invasion and occupation

Some Kenyan communities strongly resisted the initial occupation of their territory. They used armed struggle to resist British rule. Among the communities that resisted were the Nandi. In this lesson, we shall discuss the causes of the Nandi resistance, reasons why the resistance took a long time, and results of the resistance.

Causes of the Nandi resistance

Why did the Nandi resist British invasion of their territory? Several reasons led to the Nandi resistance. These included:

1) They regarded themselves superior due to their good military organization

2) Kimnyole's prophesy had warned them against allowing foreigners in their territory

3) Koitalel Arap Samoei's able leadership. He was also a symbol of unity among the Nandi

4) They were against the construction of the Uganda Railway across their territory

5) They disliked the Europeans due to their pale skin, clothes and associated them with devils

6) They wanted to preserve their cultural practices and religious beliefs

Nandi woman being reprimanded for wearing earings and necklace made from telegraph wires.

Why the Nandi resisted the British for so long

The Nandi resistance lasted for about ten years. The Nandi were favoured by the following factors:

1) Their land is mountainous with valleys. The Nandi were conversant with the terrain

2) They practised mixed economy hence when the British confiscated their cattle, they could still depend on food crops

3) The age set system supplied them with reliable military force

4) Climatic conditions were very harsh for the British invaders

5 Poor transport and communication delayed quick movement of British forces

Nandi worriors

 

Results of the Nandi resistance

The Nandi put up a spirited resistance against the British but were eventually defeated. Their defeat led to the following:

1) Loss of independence

2) Loss of lives

3) Destruction of property

4) The Nandi leader, Koitalel Arap Samoei, was killed in 1905

5) Land alienation

6) creation of African reserves.

Koitalel Arap Samoei


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

(a) Explain the Maasai response to British invasion.


The Response of the Maasai to British Invasion and Occupation

Collaboration means to cooperate with another person or a second party for various reasons. In this, lesson we are going to discuss the Maasai's response to colonial rule.

Maasai reserves and Maasai territories.


Causes of Maasai collaboration

During the time of scramble and partition of Africa, the Maasai led by Lenana collaborated with the British because of the following reasons:

1) Succession dispute between Lenana and Sendeyo

2) Natural calamities such as drought and locust invasion

3) External attacks from the Nandi and Luo

4) Protect their independence

5) Wanted to protect their pasture land and water points

Sign of drought

Course of collaboration

The process of collaboration between the Maasai and the British invloved sigining of treaties. The first one in 1904 and the second in 1911. These recognised Lenana as a paramount chief and moved Maasai to semi arid reserves to pave way for white settlers. Collaboration of the Maasai with the British involved:

1)The signing of the 1904 treaty which created the Laikipia Plateau in the North and Ngong reserves to the South

2) The signing of the 1911 treaty which pushed the Maasai to the Southern reserve

3) Use of Maasai mercenaries by the British to fight the Nandi and Luo

Effects of Maasai collaboration

The collaboration of the Maasai had several effects. They include the following:

1) Lenana became a Paramount Chief of the Maasai in 1901

2) The Maasai were moved to reserves, namely Loita and Ngong

3) They lost their land to the British

Lenana and colonial masters

Other results are:

4) The Maasai freedom was curtailed and were required to conduct their rituals within a specific area

5) There was total disruption of their economy

6) The animals and foodstuffs that were looted from the Nandi, Agikuyu and the Luo was given to the Maasai

7) The Maasai were used as mercenaries against resisting communities such as the Nandi and Agikuyu

8) The Maasai migratory grazing habits were also curtailed

9) The Maasai lost their independence and their land was declared British protectorate

Masaai Morans

Effects of Maasai collaboration

The collaboration of the Maasai had a lot of effects. Some of them lasting upto date (many years after independence). Some of them include the following:
- Lenana became a Paramount Chief of the Maasai in 1901
- The Maasai were moved to reserves, namely Loita and Ngong
- They lost their land to the British

Effects of Maasai collaboration

Other results are:
- The Maasai freedom was curtailed to conduct their rituals within a specific area
- There was total disruption of their economy
- The animals and foodstuffs that were looted from the Nandi, Agikuyu and the Luo was given to the Maasai
- The Maasai were used as mercenaries against resisting communities such as the Nandi and Agikuyu
- The Maasai migratory grazing habits were also curtailed
- The Maasai lost their independence and their land was declared British protectorate


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:


1. Explain the Akamba response to British invasion


2. Discuss the effects of Akamba response to the British invasion


The Akamba Response to British Invasion and Occupation (Mixed Reactions)

Mixed reaction refers to a situation where some people within a community collaborated while other resisted the colonialists. Some of the communities that offered mixed reaction include the Akamba, Agikuyu and Luo. In today's lesson we shall learn about the Akamba mixed reaction to British invasion and occupation.

The Akamba community felt threatened by British interference of their activities and responded by resisting.

Some of the causes of resistance were:

1) Loss of independence after the establishment of the colonial rule

2) Cutting down of the shrine tree

3) Abuse of their culture

4) Forced labour

5) Military expeditions

MIXED REACTIONS

In today's lesson we shall define mixed reaction, explain the Akamba response to British invasion and discuss the effects of Akamba mixed reaction to British invasion. Mixed reaction referes to a situation where some people in the community collaborated while other resisted. The Akamba community felt threatened by British interference of their activities and responded by resisting.

MIXED REACTIONS

Some of the causes of resistance were:

• Loss of independence after the establishment of the colonial rule
• Cutting down of the shrine tree
• Abuse of their culture
• Forced labour
• Military expeditions

Course of the Akamba resistance

What methods did the Akamba use in the process of their resistance? The following are ways in which the Akamba resisted and the British response. These included:

1) They refused to sell goods to the company agents.

2) The cutting of shrine tree made the prophetess to organize an attack at Masaku Fort

3) The company responded by burning and looting Akamba villages

4) In 1894 more attacks by the Akamba on the British

5) In response, the British attacked and defeated the Akamba, and then the Akamba started collaborating.

Collaboration of the Akamba

Collaboration means getting into a cooperation, assosciation or partnership with another person, party or group. The Akamba collaborated because of the following reasons:

1) They had been defeated many times by the British hence many collaborated

2) Mwatu wa Ngoma was stopped from attacking Masaku Fort by John Hensworhy, making him to collaborate

3) The famine of 1899 made Akamba people weak to effectively fight against the British

4) The ruthlessness with which the British attacked the Akamba scared many warriors

5) They wanted to get some benefits from the British, for example clothes, beads and cowry shells

Ways in which the Akamba collaborated with the British

Some sections of the Akamba collaborated with the British through various ways. Some of which included:

1) Creating friendship with British administrators

2) Selling food to the British

3) Working for the British

4) Making of covenants with the British

5) They surrendered their land

6) Receiving gifts from the British such as clothes and guns

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