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European invasion of Africa - History Form 3


History and Governent for form 3

Hallo. Welcome to History and Governent for form 3. In this DVD we are going to learn about European invasion of Africa and the process of colonisation, establishment of colonial rule in Kenya, colonial administration, social and economic devepments in Kenya during the colonial period, political developments and the struggle for independence in Kenya, emergence and growth of nationalism in Africa and, lives and contributions of Kenyan leaders.

Further, we shall discuss The Formation, Structure and Functions of the Government of Kenya in regard to the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary as outlined in the constitution.

European invasion of Africa

European interests in Africa began as early as the 1st century Ad. The Greeks, Romans, Portuguese, British, French and the Dutch traded with the Africans as we learnt in form one. This led to the development of trade routes and centres which opened up Africa. For centuries, these foreigners interacted with the Africans through trade, exploration and missionary work. These however changed between 1884 and 1914 when the Europeans started to invade and colonise Africa in What came to be known as the Scramble and Partion of Africa.


European Invasion of Africa

European Invasion of Africa

European interests in Africa began as early as the 1st century Ad. The Greeks, Romans, Portuguese, British, French and the Dutch traded with the Africans as we learnt in form one. This led to the development of trade routes and centres which opened up Africa. For centuries, these foreigners interacted with the Africans through trade, exploration and missionary work. These however changed between 1884 and 1914 when the Europeans started to invade and colonise Africa in What came to be known as the Scramble and Partion of Africa. Click on the play button to view European interests in Africa.

 



Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:


1. Define the terms scramble and partition


2. Identify the methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa


3. Describe the process of partition


4. Analyze the impact of partition




Scramble and Partition for Africa

To scramble means to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get something. Partion means to divide something among people or competitors. The scramble and partition of Africa refers to the rush for European powers to establish their spheres of influence or colonies in Africa. Click on the play button to view animation on scamble.



Methods used by European to acquire Colonies in Africa

European powers used the following methods to acquire colonies in Africa:
1) Signing of Treaties - Europeans used to sign treaties with the local leaders and also among themselves.
2) Military Conquest - this was used whenever treaty making failed
3) Diplomacy - this is when Europeans used peaceful negaotiations to acquire territory
4) Trickery - this involved luring African leaders with gifts to surrender their territory to europeans
5) Comany rule - this was the use of chartered companies to administer the colonies on behalf of the european powers
6) Missionaries - this is when missionaries asked for protection from their parent countries after converted Africans to christianity


Process of Partition

Process of Partition

1) Missionaries, traders and explorers irrespective of their countries of origin should be protected by the colonial powers
2) Any power owning territory in Africa must undertake to abolish slave trade
3) River Niger and Congo must be left free for all European powers for fair trade
4) Partition treaties must be used to sort out any future disagreements


Process of Partition

This process involved dividing Africa among European powers after the Berlin conference of 1884-85. The terms agreed during the Berlin conference were:
• once an area is declared a sphere of influence effective occupation must be established
• Any European power claiming any part of Africa must inform other powers.


Process of Partition

• Missionaries, traders and explorers irrespective of their countries of origin should be protected by the coonial powers
• Any power owning territory in Africa must undertake to abolish slave trade
• River Niger and Congo must be left free for all European powers for fair trade
• Partition treaties must be used to sort out any future disagreements


Process of Partition

This process involved dividing Africa among European powers after the Berlin conference of 1884-85. The terms agreed during the Berlin conference were:

1) once an area is declared a sphere of influence effective occupation must be established

2) Any European power claiming any part of Africa must inform other powers.

Otto Von Bismarck

Process of Partition

1) Missionaries, traders and explorers irrespective of their countries of origin should be protected by the colonial powers
2) Any power owning territory in Africa must undertake to abolish slave trade
3) River Niger and Congo must be left free for all European powers for fair trade
4) Partition treaties must be used to sort out any future disagreements

Terms of the Berlin Conference



Terms of the Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference had the following terms;
1. Once an area is declared a sphere of influence, effective influence must be established
2. Any European country claiming any part of Africa must inform other interested parties
3. Missionaries, traders, explorers, irrespective of their countries of origin should be protected by the colonial power
4. Any power acquiring territory in Africa must undertake to abolish slave trade
5. River Niger and Congo to be left free for all European powers for fair international trade



Impact of Partition

Impact of Partition

The partition of Africa had several effects both to both Africans and Europeans. Some of these impacts include:


1. Drawing of boundaries in Africa


2. Spread of Christianity


3. Introduction of Western education


4. Abolition of slave trade


5. Improvement in agriculture

6. Some communities were split into different countries


Symbol of Christianity.


Prior Knowledge

In the previous lesson, we learnt about the impact of the partition of Africa. In order to review this lesson, attempt the following exercise by ticking the negative effects of the partition from the list given.


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;


1. Identify different ways in which Africans reacted to European colonization.


2. Discuss the Mandinka resistance under Samouri Toure.



African Reaction to European colonization (Resistance)

In this lesson we are will discuss the Mandinka resistance by identifying the reasons for the resistance, reasons for Mandinka defeat by the French and effects of the resistance.Resistance refers to the use weapons by Africans to fight the foreigners. An example of a community that resisted was the Mandinka led by Samouri Toure. Why did the Mandinka resist the French invasion?

African Reaction to European colonization (Resistance)

Several reason led to the Mandinka resistance. These include:
• To safeguard their independence
• Samouri Toure was unwilling to lose the Bure Gold mines to the French
• Samouri wanted to maintain economic and military supremacy
• He was against the introduction of Christianity to his Muslim subjects
• The French supplied weapons to his enemy Tieba of Sikasso


African Reaction to European colonization (Resistance)

In this lesson we are will discuss the Mandinka resistance by identifying the reasons for the resistance, reasons for Mandinka defeat by the French and effects of the resistance.Resistance refers to the use weapons by Africans to fight the foreigners. An example of a community that resisted was the Mandinka led by Samouri Toure. Why did the Mandinka resist the French invasion?


African Reaction to European colonization (Resistance)

Several reason led to the Mandinka resistance. These include:
• To safeguard their independence
• Samouri Toure was unwilling to lose the Bure Gold mines to the French
• Samouri wanted to maintain economic and military supremacy
• He was against the introduction of Christianity to his Muslim subjects
• The French supplied weapons to his enemy Tieba of Sikasso


African Reaction to European colonization (Resistance)


The Mandika resistance

Several reason led to the Mandinka resistance. These include:

1) To safeguard their independence

2) Samouri Toure was unwilling to lose the Bure Gold mines to the French

3) Samouri wanted to maintain economic and military supremacy

4) He was against the introduction of Christianity to his Muslim subjects

5) The French supplied weapons to his enemy Tieba of Sikasso


African Reaction to European colonization (Resistance)

In this lesson we are will discuss the Mandinka resistance by identifying the reasons for the resistance, reasons for Mandinka defeat by the French and effects of the resistance.Resistance refers to the use weapons by Africans to fight the foreigners. An example of a community that resisted was the Mandinka led by Samouri Toure. Why did the Mandinka resist the French invasion?

The Mandika resistance

Several reason led to the Mandinka resistance. These include:
1) To safeguard their independence
2) Samouri Toure was unwilling to lose the Bure Gold mines to the French
3) Samouri wanted to maintain economic and military supremacy
4) He was against the introduction of Christianity to his Muslim subjects
5) The French supplied weapons to his enemy Tieba of Sikasso


Why the Mandinka resisited French invasion of their territory

Several factors enabled Samouri Toure to resist the French for a long time. In order to understand these factors, listen to the following conversation between an elderly man explaining to his grand son why the resistance took so long.


Reasons for Samouri Toure's defeat

From the conversation we have listened to in the conversation, we have learnt that Samouri Toure was able to resist the French for a long time because;

1) He was a soldier and had a large army that was well equipped with modern weapons.

2) He also used the guerilla tactics in fighting the French and he knew his terrain well.

3) He had a workshop where he made and repaired his weapons.


One might wonder why Samouri Toure was defeated by the French. Several factors contributed to Samouri Toure's defeat by the French. These included:


1. Lack of adequate supplies


2. Lack of unity among African societies


3. Samouri's second empire was open to attacks


4. The British refused to support Samouri against the French


5. The French had superior weapons

6. The weapon become demoralized due to continuous warfare.


Results of Samouri Toure's resistance

The Mandinka resistance had several effects on both Africans and the French. Some of the effects were:

1) Loss of independence

2) Loss of lives

3) Destruction of property

4) Displacement of people

5) Samouri was deported to Gabon where he died.

People lying dead an effect of war.

Prior Knowledge

In the previous lesson, we discussed the different types of response to colonization among African communities. These were:


1. Resistance


2. Collaboration


Other examples of African resistance in Africa were;

- Maji Maji

-Ndebele

Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-
(a) Discuss the Lozi reaction to British colonization.


Reasons for Lewanika's collaboration

Collaboration means getting into a cooperation, association or partnership with another person, party or group. Lewanika entered into a partnership with the British unlike Samoure Toure who resisted the French.

Sign of collaboration

Some of the reasons for Lewanika's collaboration with the British were:

1) Lewanika needed British cooperation so as to quash a succession dispute to the throne that was threatened by his half brother Mwanawina.

2) External attacks in the form of Ndebele cattle raids

3) The Portuguese were raiding the Lozi for slaves with sophisticated weapons

4) Lewanika was impressed by the benefits that Chief Khama of the Ngwato in Botswana obtained from cooperating with the British.

5) Lewanika admired the western way of life and his thinking was influenced by his secretary who was also a French missionary, Francois Coillard.

6) Lewanika was aware of the British military supremacy

Reasons for Lewanikas collaboration

Some of the reasons for Lewanika's collaboration with the British were:

• Lewanika needed British cooperation so as to quash a succession dispute to the throne that was threatened by his half brother Mwanawina.
• External attacks in the form of Ndebele cattle raids
• The Portuguese were raiding the Lozi for slaves with sophisticated weapons
• Lewanika was impressed by the benefits that Chief Khama of the Ngwato in Botswana obtained from cooperating with the British.
• Lewanika admired the western way of life and his thinking was influenced by his secretary who was also a French missionary, Francois Coillard.
• Lewanika was aware of the British military supremacy

Course of Lewanika's collaboration

What did the process of Lewanika's collaboration involve? It involved;

1) The Ware treaty of 1889 that allowed the British to prospect for minerals.

2) The Lochner treaty of 1890 which gave the British exclusive mining rights in all areas of Balotse except for certain traditional iron mines

3) Lawley treaty of 1898 which allowed British settler farming in Balotseland

4) The Coryndon treaty of 1900 that gave the British judicial and administrative powers, and as a result, Lewanika become a paramount chief and an employee in the British administration, and therefore no longer an independent king.

Lewanika during negotiations with white colonialists

Results of Lozi collaboration

Results of Lozi collaboration

Lewanika's collaboration with the British had several effects on both Africans and Europeans. Some of the effects were;

  • Lewanika retained his position as paramount chief of the Lozi
  • The British used Lozi to establish their authority over northern Rhodesia
  • Lozi chiefs lost all their powers except that of tax collection
  • The British South Africa company exploited minerals in Borotseland
  • The British built schools, hospitals, transport and communication links on Borotseland.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to;


1. Explain factors for the European invasion of Kenya


2. Describe the process of British occupation of Kenya


Background to the Scramble and partition of East Africa

Quiz

In our lesson we have learnt about the background to the scrable and partion of East Africa. Attempt the following exercise by filling in the correct word or words in the spaces provided.in each of the statements.


During the sharing, East Africa fell under two European colonial powers, namely Britain and Germany. The colonial interests of these powers were enhanced by the activities of explorers, traders and missionaries. The activities of Carl Peters from Germany and Harry Johnston in East Africa led to the scramble for and partition of the region into British and Germany spheres of influence.

German spheres of influence in East Africa during the 19th century.

Background to the Scramble and partition of East Africa

In todays lesson, we shall learn more about the scramble, partion and the British occupation in Kenya. In Lesson one, we said that scramble is to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get or do something while partition is to divide something among people or competitors. We shall now look at the Berlin conference that was held between 1884 to 1885 which enabled the European powers to share Africa among themselves.

Background to the Scramble and partition of East Africa

During the sharing, East Africa fell under two European colonial powers, namely Britain and Germany. The colonial interests of these powers were enhanced by the activities of explorers, traders and missionaries. The activities of Carl Peters from Germany and Harry Johnston in East Africa led to the scramble for and partition of the region into British and Germany spheres of influence.

Background to the Scramble and partition of East Africa

In todays lesson, we shall learn more about the scramble, partion and the British occupation in Kenya. In Lesson one, we said that scramble is to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get or do something while partition is to divide something among people or competitors. We shall now look at the Berlin conference that was held between 1884 to 1885 which enabled the European powers to share Africa among themselves.


During the sharing, East Africa fell under two European colonial powers, namely Britain and Germany. The colonial interests of these powers were enhanced by the activities of explorers, traders and missionaries. The activities of Carl Peters from Germany and Harry Johnston in East Africa led to the scramble for and partition of the region into British and Germany spheres of influence.

Background to the Scramble and partition of East Africa

In todays lesson, we shall learn more about the scramble, partion and the British occupation in Kenya. In Lesson one, we said that scramble is to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get or do something while partition is to divide something among people or competitors. We shall now look at the Berlin conference that was held between 1884 to 1885 which enabled the European powers to share Africa among themselves.


During the sharing, East Africa fell under two European colonial powers, namely Britain and Germany. The colonial interests of these powers were enhanced by the activities of explorers, traders and missionaries. The activities of Carl Peters from Germany and Harry Johnston in East Africa led to the scramble for and partition of the region into British and Germany spheres of influence.

Causes for the scramble of East Africa

What was the main cause of the scramble? Several causes led to the scarmble and partion of East Africa. The main cause of the British interest in East Africa was to control the source of River Nile for her security in Egypt.

River Nile as it flows through Africa from its source in Lake Victoria to Egypt


Other causes that led to the scamble and partition of East Africa were;

1) The rise of Germany and Italy in Europe which led to competition for colonies outside Europe. Many countries wanted to control the source of the Nile and Suez canal which was a center of interest in Europe

2) Demand for raw material for industries in Europe

3) Europeans believed they had superior culture hence wanted to spread it

4) Missionaries appealed for protection from their home governments

Causes for the scramble of East Africa

What was the main cause of the scramble? Several causes led to the scarmble and partion of East Africa. The main cause of the British interest in East Africa was to control the source of River Nile for her security in Egypt.

Causes for the scramble of East Africa

Other causes that led to the scamble and partition of East Africa were;
• The rise of Germany and Italy in Europe which led to competition for colonies outside Europe • Many countries wanted to control the source of the Nile and Suez canal which was a center of interest in Europe
• Demand for raw material for industries in Europe
• Europeans believed they had superior culture hence wanted to spread it
• Missionaries appealed for protection from their home governments

The Process of British occupation in Kenya

The process of partition of East Africa involved two powers, namely British and Germany. The actual partition was done through signing of agreements. This included Anglo-Germany agreement of 1886 and Anglo-Germany agreement of 1890, also known as the Heligoland treaty. During the 1886 Anglo-Germany agreement, the two countries agreed that a line was to be drawn from the coast to Lake Victoria. The northern part of the line which today kenya was to belong to the British and the southern was to belong to the Germans. Witu on river Tana was given to Germany, the coastline and the islands of Lamu, Pemba, Zanzibar and Mafia were controlled by the Sultanate if Zanzibar.

Why was it necessary to sign the Heligoland treaty? This was a treaty that gave Britain full occupation of Uganda after she surrendered Heligoland island in the North Sea. Germany purchased the coast of Tanyanyika from the Sultan of Zanzibar. The Sultan retained the 16 Kilometer coastal strip.

The Process of British occupation in Kenya

The process of partition of East Africa involved two powers, namely British and Germany. The actual partition was done through signing of agreements. This included Anglo-Germany agreement of 1886 and Anglo-Germany agreement of 1890, also known as the Heligoland treaty. During the 1886 Anglo-Germany agreement, the two countries agreed that a line was to be drawn from the coast to Lake Victoria. The northern part of the line which today kenya was to belong to the British and the southern was to belong to the Germans. Witu on river Tana was given to Germany, the coastline and the islands of Lamu, Pemba, Zanzibar and Mafia were controlled by the Sultanate if Zanzibar.

The Process of British occupation in Kenya

Why was it necessary to sign the Heligoland treaty? This was a treaty that gave Britain full occupation of Uganda after she surrendered Heligoland island in the North Sea. Germany purchased the coast of Tanyanyika from the Sultan of Zanzibar. The Sultan retained the 16 Kilometer coastal strip.

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