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Social and Economic Development - History Form 3

Social and Economic Development During The Colonial Period in Kenya

In today's lesson we shall discuss the reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway, problems encountered during the construction and the effects. The colonial government was determined to develop Kenya socially and economically in order to make the colony pay for its administrative costs.

The Kenya-Uganda railway.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:


1. State the reasons for the construction of the Uganda Railway


2. Discuss the problems encountered during the construction of the Uganda Railway


3. Discuss the effects of the Uganda Railway




The Uganda Railway

In order to open up the territory, the British had to establish better means of transport and communication. This led to the construction of the Uganda railway. The need to construct the Uganda railway started with ideas of William MacKinnon who was in charge of the imperial British east Africa company. The railway started in 1895 and was completed in 1901. It was called Uganda railway because it linked Uganda to the outside world.


Reasons for Building the Uganda Railway

The reasons for the construction of the railway were as follows:
• To link Uganda with the Kenyan coast and the outside world
• To enhance maximum economic exploitation of the east African protectorate
• To facilitate quick and efficient movement of administrators and troops
• To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade
• To enable Britain protect her strategic interests of the source of river Nile in Uganda


Reasons for building the Uganda Railway

The reasons for the construction of the railway were as follows:

1) To link Uganda with the Kenyan coast and the outside world

2) To enhance maximum economic exploitation of the east African protectorate

3) To facilitate quick and efficient movement of administrators and troops

4) To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade

5) To enable Britain protect her strategic interests of the source of river Nile in Uganda

Problems encountered in the Construction of the Uganda Railway

What were the problems encountered during the construction of the Kenya - Uganda railway? Some of the problems were as follows:

1) The British had to impose skilled and unskilled labour from India (coolies)

2) Resistance by some African communities who did not want the railway to cross their land such as the Nandi

3) Imposition of materials from abroad increased the cost of construction

4) The man eating lions of Tsavo killed many workers

5) Scarcity of essential supplies, for example water and food particularly across the dry wasteland

6) Tropical diseases such as malaria claimed the lives of railway builders

7) The escarpments of the rift valley posed engineering challenges to the railway construction

8) Jiggers were a problem to the Indian workers who were walking bare feet

Effects of the Construction of the Uganda Railway

The construction of the Uganda railway affected people of Kenya socially and economically. Some of these effects were;

1) Development of urban centres to replace urbanization

2) It opened up the interior of Kenya to the outside world

3) It facilitated the coming of white settlers to Kenya who introduced new methods of farming

4) The settlers occupied the fertile highlands which made some Africans landless

5) The Indians who had come as railway workers settled in kenya permanently

6) It encouraged the spread of Christianity

7) It promoted both local and international trade

8) It encouraged construction of other means of transport and communication such as roads

9) It led to the redrawing of boundary between Kenya and Uganda

10) It led to the transfer of the capital of kenya from Mombasa to Nairobi


Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

(a) Explain the settler farming in Kenya.

(b) Discuss the colonial land policies.



Settler Farming in Kenya

In today's lesson we shall learn about the settler farming in Kenya, why the Colonial government encouraged white settlement in Kenya and the methods it used to promote settler farming.

A tea plantation

Reasons why the government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya

There were various reasons why the colonial government encouraged the white settlers to come to Kenya. Some of them were;

1) the colonial government encouraged the white settlers to make kenya a white mans country since they would form the backbone of the economy

2) to help finance the administrative cost.

3) To produce the raw materials for British industries

4) The Africans lacked funds and skills of large scale farming

5) Check Asian migration ad influence by settling more whites

6) To pay for the construction cost of the kenya Uganda railway

Methods used to promote settler farming in kenya

The colonial government used various methods to promote settler farming in Kenya. Some of these methods were as follows:

1) Provided land

2) Improved transport and communication network

3) Formation of cooperatives for marketing their goods

4) Provided security

5) Banned Africans from growing cash crops

6) Provided agricultural extension services to settlers


A good road

Problems faced by the white settlers

Farming in the kenya highlands was not an easy task. The first European farmers faced a wide range of problems, some of which include the following:

1) Constant raids in the farms by the local communities for example the Nandi and the Maasai

2) Many Africans were not willing to offer labour

3) Settlers lacked basic knowledge, skills and experience on agriculture

4) Shortage of funds to buy farm inputs and machinery

5) Poor transport and communication network for example roads and railways

6) The settlers lacked knowledge about the seasons

6) Pests and diseases affected crops and animals

A sick animal

Problems faced by the white settlers

Farming in the kenya highlands was not an easy task. The first Eropean farmers faced a wide range of problems, some of which include the following:

• Constant raids in the farms by the local communities for example Nandi, Maasai
• Many Africans were not willing to offer labour
• Settlers lacked basic knowledge, skills and experience on agriculture
• Shortage of funds to buy farm inputs or machinery
• Poor transport and communication network for example roads and railways
• The settlers lacked knowledge about the seasons
• Posts and diseases affected crops and animals


Cash Crops

Cash Crops

The white farmers introduced cash crops and exotic breeds of livestock in Kenya.They include-Coffee- this was one of the earliest cash crops. It was was first planted around Taita Taveta before later moving into central province were it become more prominent. Other crops include Wheat-which was introduced by lord Delamare in Njoro in 1903. Wheat is grown in Nakuru and Uasin Gishu. Sisal- which was introduced in 1893 from Tanganyika by Richard Hindrf. The crop is grown in Thika, Eastern Province, Kibwezi, Baringo, Voi, Taita Taveta and Kilif. Tea- which was introduced in Kenya in 1903 at Limuru by Messrs Caire. It is grown in Kericho, Nandi, Muranga, Meru, Nyeri and Kiambu and Livestock- settlers like lord Delamere introduced the rearing sheep and cattle in Njoro.

Colonial Land Policies

The colonial government encouraged white settlers in Kenya through creating land policies that legalized annexation of land from the Africans for white settlement. The government alienated land to enable the settlers established large scale farming. This was done by passing legislation legalizing the annexation of land through legislative councils.

A white settler


These legislations came to be known as land policies. They were;

1) Indian acquisition act of 1896, empowered the government to take over land for the construction of the railway line

2) The land legislation act of 1897 which enabled the government to offer certificate of occupation

3) The 1907 east African order in council which defined crown land as all public land which is not private and the government would take it at will, sell it or lease it

4) The Maasai agreement of 1904 pushed the Maasai to Laikipia and Ngong reserves. Settlers were encouraged to take up the Maasai land for farming.

Effects of Land Policies

The colonial land policies had a number of effects on the people of Kenya. These include:

1) The Africans lost their land

2) Africans were pushed to the reserves, for example the Maasai

3) Land alienation stopped widespread migration and settlements of the Africans

4) Led to the introduction of the Kipande system

5) Many Africans become squatters and laborers in European farms

6) Led to the rise of African nationalism and the struggle for independence

Man carrying a Kipande

Prior Knowledge

In our previous lesson we discussed settler farming and colonial land policies in Kenya. Some of the consequences of the colonial land policies were:


1. Loss of land by Africans


2. Poverty and misery to the Africans


3. Improvement of agriculture through the introduction of cash crops


4. Introduction of taxes to ensure Africans worked for the whites


5. Introduction of the kipande system to control the movement of Africans.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

- Discuss the main developments in education in Kenya during the colonial period.



Health and Education

We shall start our lesson by identifying the groups involved in the development of education in Kenya during the colonial period. These were the Christian missionaries, the colonial government, Africans and Asians.


Illustration showing education introduced during the colonial period

Aims of Missionary Education

Western eduaction was introduced in Kenya by the christian missionaries. The aims of missionary education were to:

1) Offer basic literacy skills to enable Africans read the Bible and to do simple arithmetic

2) Enhance the spread of Christianity by training some African catechists

3) Teach Africans basic technical skills for example, carpentry

4) Teach Africans better methods of hygiene

5) Teach Africans agricultural skills to promote European farming.

Development of Education

Education during the colonial period can be divided into three levels namely elementary, secondary and university. The development of education followed the given stages:

1) The first schools in Kenya were started at Mombasa and Rabai in 1840s by Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) missionaries Krapf and Rebmann.

2) Upto 1910 missionaries established schools without government assistance.

3) The education offered did not have a syllabus, formula or certificate

4) In 1911 the colonial government started an education department that started the first government schools and drew a syllabus to guide the type of education in Kenya.


5) Secondary education did not exist in Kenya until 1926 when an Alliance of protestant churches started Alliance High School.

Alliance High school logo


6) The Holy Ghost Father (Catholics) started Mang'u High school originally at Kabaa.



7) By 1940 secondary schools in Kenya controlled by different Christian missionaries included Alliance, Mang'u, Maseno,Kagumo, Kibianga, St. Mary's Yala and Shimo la Tewa.

Kangumo High school

St Mary's Yala Seconadary school

8) These schools were only admitting students whose parents belonged to the particular missionary sect sponsoring the school.

9) Africans also started their own independent schools which were free of missionary influence. Githunguri Independent school opened in 1925 and Gaithieko in 1912.

 


University Education

The First University in East Africa was Makerere which was started in 1949.


In 1963, Makerere, Royal College Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam merged and formed the University of East Africa.

In 1971 each became a separate University.

University of Nairobi


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