Fluid Flow - Physics Form 2 Coursework e-Content CDs
In form one Physics course, we learnt that, all physical quantities can be classified as vectors and scalar quantities. Some of the vector quantities are force and velocity, that is, speed of an object in a specified direction. In this topic of fluid flow, we will study the relationship between velocity and pressure in a fluid. This relationship is the basis on which aeroplanes fly.
By the end of the topic you should be able to:
- Describe streamline flow and turbulent flow
- Describe experiments to illustrate Bernoulli's Effect
- Explain Bernoulli's effect
- Describe the applications of Bernoulli's effect
- Solve numerical problems involving the equation of continuity
In previous lessons, we learnt that matter exists in three main physical states, namely: solids, liquids and gases. Liquids and gases belong to a broad class of substances that are capable of flowing and are known as fluids. A fluid is any substance which is capable of flowing. In this topic, we shall learn about fluids in motion.
Streamline and turbulent flow
(a) Streamline flow
Activity 6.1: To demonstrate streamline and turbulent flow.
Click on the word STREAMLINE and observe the movement of fluid particles.
Observations: When air is blown between two balloons, they move closer each other. The same observation is made when air is blown between parallel sheets of paper.
Explanation: Blowing air between two objects increases the velocity (speed) of air between the objects. This reduces the pressure between the objects; so the pressure difference causes them to move towards each other.
d) Venturi meter
Activity 6.4: Demonstrating Bernoulli's effect using a venturi meter
Height of liquid column represents pressure. The higher the level of liquid, the greater the pressure. At the narrow section, where velocity is higher, pressure is low. Hence pressure in a fluid decreases as velocity increases and vice versa. This is the Bernoulli's effect. Bernoulli's effect is consistent with the equation of continuity, a1v1 = a2v2.
Application of Bernoulli's effect
(a) Spray gun
Activity 6.5: Demonstrating the working of a Spray Gun
Click on the play button,what have you observed?
A spray gun is an application of Bernoulli's effect. It works on the same principle but may take slightly different forms as in the case of spray painting and application of insecticides. Here is an explanation of how it works. When the piston is pushed inwards, air is forced out through the narrow jet so it escapes at high velocity. This creates a region of low pressure. The greater air pressure in the can forces the liquid up the tube into the low pressure region and emerges as a spray.
Activity 6.6: Demonstrating the take-off of a Helicopter
As the propeller rotates, velocity of the air above the helicopter increases, thereby creating a region of low pressure at that point. The greater air pressure below the helicopter then causes a lift force which pushes the helicopter upwards.
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