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Transport - Business Studies Form 2

Air

This is a mode of transport that involves movement of goods and people through the air.The means used include Air crafts and Air balloons

Objectives

By the end of the topic, you should be able to:

  • explain the meaning and importance of transport to business.
  • explain the essential elements of transport.
  • describe the modes and means of transport.
  • discuss advantages and disadvantages of each means of transport.
  • discuss the factors which influence choice of appropriate means of transport.
  • discuss trends in transport.

TRANSPORT

Businesses use various modes and means of transport in their day to day operations.

Click the play button to view various modes of transport.



Background

Business involves movement of goods and services. This movement is necessary so that goods and services can be taken to places where they are needed. This increases their utility.

Means of Transport

 

Introduction

Goods, services and people need to move from one place to another.This movemement necessitates production,distribution and exchange of goods and services.All these movements are made possible by transport.

Thousands of traders use Likoni Ferry to and from mombasa island.

Meaning of Transport

Transport is the movement of goods, people and animals from one place to another.

Essentials of Transport.

These are elements that must exist for transport to take place. They include :

  • The Way
  • Unit of carriage
  • Method of propulsion
  • Terminal
Way

Media on/through which goods are moved from one place to another e.g. water, air and land

The Way

Media on or through which goods are moved from one place to another for example water, air and land


Unit of carriage

 
Vessels or vehicles in which products, goods and people are transported e.g. buses,tankers,boats e.t.c

Unit of carriage

These are vessels or vehicles in which goods or people are transported for example buses, trains, carts, aircraft and ship

.

Method of propulsion

It is the power that drives the unit of carriage for example steam power, fuel engine, electrical motor, animal and human power.

Terminal

A place where goods and people are either loaded or off loaded from their units of carriage for example seaport, airport, bus stations and railway stations.

Modes of transport
Mode is the way in which goods and people move this include land, water and air.

    • Land
      this mode of transport involves movement of people and goods on land examples of modes under land include road and railway.

    Water
    this involves movement of goods and people on water.

    Air 
    - this mode of transport involves movement of goods and people through the air


Land Transport

This mode of transport involves movement of people and goods on land .Examples of means transport under land include road and railway transport.

Air Transport

Water

This involves movement of goods and people on water.The means of transport used here include ships,canoes and boats.

Water

This involves movement of goods and people on water.The means of transpoert used here include:

Ship


Canoes


boats

Modes of Transport

Mode is the way on or through which goods and people move.The modes of transport include:

  • Land
  • Air
  • Water.

Land  transport
Land transport is the movement of people on dry land.

Means for land transport

Means for land transport includes animals,vehicles and trains among others.

Means for road transport

Means of road transport include:

  • Human porterage
  • Animals
  • Carts
  • Bicycles
  • Motor vehicles

Means of Transport

Means are facilities that enable movement of goods and people for example motor vehicles, trains, boats,canoes,human porterage, animals and aircrafts among others.


Advantages of road transport

Advantages of road transport includes:

  • It is flexible
  • It is relatively cheaper
  • It is readily available
  • It compliments other means of transport
  • It offers door-to-door services
  • It is easy to operate.

Disadvantages of Road transport

Disadvantages of Road transport include:

  • Causes traffic jam
  • Prone to bad weather conditions
  • Limited carriage capacity compared to sea, and air transport
  • Slow means of transport
  • They are only suitable for light loads and short distance.
    • Railway

      Railway transport is a mode of transport that involves transporting passengers and cargo by train.

      Advantages of railway transport

      Advantages of railway transport include:

      • It is Cheap and economical over long distances
      • It is convenient since it follows a regular route and time schedule
      • It caters for different classes of customers
      • It can transport heavy and bulky goods easily
      • diferrent wagon can be used to carry goods that would conterminate others
      • It is less susceptible to traffic jams

      Disadvantages of railway transport

      Disadvantages of railway transport includes

      • Those that use diesel engines are slow.
      • Their routes are fixed hence not flexible.
      • There is high construction and maintenance costs
      • Not economical over short distances
      • Loading and off loading requires sophisticated facilities which may be expensive.

      Pipeline

      This is movement of a commodity through pipes from one place to another.The pipes are used as means of transport.

      Advantages of pipeline transport

      Advantages of pipeline transport includes:

      • It reduces congestion on roads.
      • It is suitable for transporting highly combustible products.
      • It is not affected by adverse weather conditions.

      Disadvantages of pipeline transport

      • The disadvantages of pipeline transport includes:
      • The Initial construction costs are high.
      • It is vulnerable to sabotage.
      • Only limited types of products can be transported through pipes.

      Water Transport

      The means of water transport include:

    • Ships
    • Canoes
    • boats
    • Advantages of Water transport

      Advantages of Water transport include:

        • The way is natural thus there are no initial construction and maintenance costs except for artificial waterways
        • It is most suitable for bulky and heavy goods over long distances
        • It is possible to access many parts of the world as long as they are bordered by water
        • It is free from traffic congestion

      Disadvantages of Water transport

      Disadvantages of Water transport include:

      • It is a slow means of transport for perishable and urgently required goods
      • The construction and maintenance of port facilities is expensive
      • It only serves countries with a water frontage
      • It is vulnerable to sea piracy.

      Air Transport

      Means of Air transport includes:

      • Air craft
      • Air balloons

      Advantages of Air transport

      Advantages of Air transport include:

    • It is the fastest means of transport
    • It is suitable for perishable and urgently needed products
    • Movement is smooth making it suitable for fragile goods
    • No construction and maintenance cost required because the way is natural
    • Can be used where all other means cannot reach.
      • Disadvantages of Air transport

        Disadvantages of Air transport include:

      • It is the most expensive means of transport.
      • It is affected by adverse weather conditions.
      • The construction and maintenance of terminals is expensive
      • Not suitable for transporting heavy, bulky and irregular shaped goods.
        • Choice of an appropriate means of transport

          In choosing the appropriate means of transport the following factors should be considered:

          • Cost of the means of transport that is, the affordability
          • Speed or urgency which will depend on the nature of goods being transported
          • Availability of the means that is the accessibility of the means
          • Distance to be covered
          • Reliability of the means that is, the dependability of the means of transport
          • Flexibility of the means
          • The proximity of the terminal for loading and off-loading of goods.

          Trends in Transport

          Trends in transport refers to current changes taking place in transport in various parts of the world.They include:

          • Pipeline
          • Containerization.

          Other trends in transport include:

          • Use of Tuk tuks in towns
          • Use of motorcycles and bicycles in transport commonly referred to as bodaboda
          • Use of E-ticketing in transport business.

          Containerization

          This refers to the packing of goods in standardized metal containers designed for use in transporting cargo. There are special containers designed to meet product specification for example refrigerated containers and cushioned containers for fragile goods.
          Most ports use automated terminal operations systems to clear containers. This facilitates efficiency and decongests the port. For example in Mombasa port the introduction of Kilindini Waterfronts Automated Terminal Operations Systems. (KWATOS).

          Advantages and Disadvantages of containerization

          Advantages

          • Goods are better protected from damage during the movement
          • There is less risk of theft.
          • It facilitates mechanization.
          • Goods are well protected from adverse weather conditions.

          Disadvantages

          • It is expensive to acquire containers
          • Can only be used where there is appropriate handling facilities
          • Not suitable for irregular shaped goods
          • Uneconomical for small quantities of goods.

          Pipeline Transport

          Pipeline transport involves use of pipes to transport products. It is mostly used to transport liquid products but with modern technology, pipeline is being used for transporting solid products for example grains, fertilizer and cement.

          Advantages and Disadvantages of pipeline

          Advantages

          • It reduces congestion on roads
          • It is suitable for transporting highly combustible products
          • It is not affected by adverse weather conditions
          • It reduces wear and tear on roads
          • It is a cheaper means of transporting liquids compared to all other means.

          Disadvantages

          • Initial construction costs are high
          • It is vulnerable to sabotage
          • Only limited types of products can be transported through pipes
          • Provides only one way flow
          • If leakages are not detected early enough they may cause a major loss.

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