Meal Planning - Homescience Form 3
Welcome to Form three Home Science. Congratulations for selecting Home Science as one of your examinable subjects. I hope it will form a basis for your future career. In form three, you will cover the following topics:
Meal planning and management refers to the process of determining the foods to be prepared, cooked and presented to the family in order to meet its nutritional needs using the available resources.
In form one, you learnt the different methods of cooking food. In form two you learnt about the various food nutrients and their functions in the human body. In this chapter you will be expected to apply this knowledge in planning, preparing and cooking meals for different groups of people.
Importance of Meal Planning
It ensures that:
1. Meals are served and presented attractively.
2. Meals are balanced to meet the nutritional needs of the family members.
3. Meals are enough in quantity to satisfy the individual.
4. Meal times are enjoyable.
By the end of the lesson you should be able to state the importance of meal planning.2. Meals are balanced to meet the nutritional needs of the family members. 3. Meals are enough in quantity to satisfy the individual 4. Meal times are enjoyable
Meal planning and presentation
After preparation and cooking, food needs to be served and presented at the dinning table. The art of food presentation is an importantant skill to a meal planner.
By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
1. Plan suitable meals for special groups of people.
2. Practise meal preparation for special groups of people.
3. Present meals attractively.
Special groups of people
When planning meals for special groups of people, it is important to know their, nutritional needs in order to meet them. Some special groups of people include: Children, adolescents, the elderly, expectant and lactating mothers, invalids and vegetarians.
Planning Meals for Children
When planning meals for children, ensure that:
- The food is rich in proteins, calcium, phosphorus, iron, carbohydrates and vitamins.
- The food is crunchy.
- The food is served on attractive dishes.
- The food should have vegetables.
- Plenty of fluids should be included for example fresh fruit juice.
Planning Meals for Adolescents
Adolescents are young adults undergoing rapid growth, with huge appetite; hence consume large quantities of food. They are also very active. Ensure their meals:
- Are rich in energy-giving foods, that is carbohydrates and fats.
- Are served in large quantities.
- Have plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Provide plenty of fluids
Planning Meals for Eldely
Due to advance in age, the metabolic processes have slowed down. They are less active with low appetite and some may have lost their teeth. Ensure the meals are:
- Rich in minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus.
- Rich in vitamins for protection.
- Served in small quantities.
- Easy to chew.
- Well seasoned.
- Have roughage to prevent constipation and cardiovascular diseases.
Planning Meals for Expectant and Lactating Mothers
An expectant mother is a woman who is pregnant, while a lactating mother is a woman who is breastfeeding. The nutritional needs of expectant and lactating mothers are the same. However, a lactating mother requires more fluids and larger quantities of food.
Planning Meals for Invalids and Convalescents
An invalid is a person who is suffering from an illness. A convalescent is a person recovering from illness. When planning their meals, ensure:
- The meal has plenty of protective foods and body building foods.
- The food is soft and easy to digest.
- The meal is prepared, cooked and served in a hygienic manner.
- Food is served in small amounts at regular intervals.
- Food is served attractively.
Planning Meals for Vegetarians
A vegetarian is a person who does not eat animal flesh or their products such as milk, eggs, ghee etc. There are two types of vegetarians, Lacto vegetarians and Strict vegetarians. Click on each for more details.
Points to consider when planning meals for vegetarians:
- Mix different types of plant proteins to provide all the essential amino acids.
- Provide a variety of proteins to avoid monotony.
- Provide adequate amount of vegetables, fats and oils.
- Foods should be well seasoned.
These are meals that are prepared, cooked, served and are eaten away from home. They can be used during picnics, while travelling, school visiting, tours and hospitals visits.
Packing Materials and Equipment
Table setting is the correct placement of table appointments required during meals. This can either be formal or informal. A formal table setting has more utensils and cutlery than the informal one in order to cater for the many courses served during a formal occasion.
Styles of Meal Service
There are many styles of meal service. In this topic four styles are discussed:
- Blue plate
- Family service
- Tray service
Blue Plate Service
The food is served on individual plates and given to the diners who may eat from table or anywhere they choose.
In this service, the diners sit at a well set table and they serve themselves or are served from the serving dishes.
a) In this service, the buffet table is well laid out with stacks of plates, cutlery and assortment of food systematically arranged.
b) The diners queue and serve themselves or are assisted by hosts/ waiters.
A tray is used and is well set with appropriate crockery and cutlery and the food is set for one person. It is suitable for invalids.
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