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Your knowledge of phrases will be useful in this lesson. As learnt earlier, a phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own. A quantifier is a word that shows amount or quantity. Some words that show quantity are:
Plenty
Few
Little
Many
Some
one
two
several
A phrasal quantifier is a group of words that express quantity in terms of amount or number.










Material describes what something is made from, for example, A wooden spoon.

Size tells you how big or small something is, for example a large envelope.
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Age tells you how young or old something or someone is, for example, Fort Jesus is an ancient building.


Colour describes the colour of something. For example, A blue dress

Shape describes how something looks like. For example, a round- faced clock.


Origin describes where something/someone comes from, for example, A Kenyan footballer







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Your knowledge of phrases will be useful in this lesson. As learnt earlier, a phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own. A quantifier is a word that shows amount or quantity. Some words that show quantity are:
Plenty
Few
Little
Many
Some
one
two
several
A phrasal quantifier is a group of words that express quantity in terms of amount or number.

Objectives:

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
Identify phrasal quantifiers in sentences
Use phrasal quantifiers in sentence construction

Objectives:

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
Identify phrasal quantifiers in sentences
Use phrasal quantifiers in sentence construction


In form 1 you were introduced to the correct use of rules in construction of English sentences. In form two, we will further explore these rules. In this lesson we will discuss phrasal quantifiers

Objectives:

By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
1. Identify phrasal quantifiers in sentences.
2. Use phrasal quantifiers in sentence construction.


What is a phrase?

As learnt earlier, a phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own.

Phrasal Quantifier

A quantifier is a group of words that express quantity in terms of amount or number. Some words that show quantity are:


Examples in sentences:

There is plenty of comfort in this house.


There are few plant species that can survive this terrain.


There is little comfort in these houses.


There are many youths abusing drugs in the society.



Uncountable nouns

These are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. "Bottles" and "litres" are quantifiers used to show or indicate the amount of milk being referred to. Study the illustration and see how another quantifier "A piece of" may be used with uncountable nouns.

Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable.


Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning.
Drinks (coffee, water, orange juice) are usually uncountable. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass, we can say (in a restaurant,for example):
Two teas and one coffee please.

Study the illustration given and suggest quantifiers that may be used to the nouns within countable.


Your knowledge of phrases will be useful in this lesson. As learnt earlier, a phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own. A quantifier is a word that shows amount or quantity. Some words that show quantity are:
Plenty
Few
Little
Many
Some
one
two
several
A phrasal quantifier is a group of words that express quantity in terms of amount or number.

It is important for you to have adequate knowledge of primary auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliary verbs and subject-verb agreement rules in order to handle this lesson effectively.

We have three types of primary auxiliary verbs; these are 'be', 'do' and 'have'. The three have other forms. These forms are:
1. be:'; 'am', 'is','was','are', 'been', 'being' 'were', 'be'.
2. do:'do' 'did','doing', 'done'.
3. have, 'had', 'have', 'having' and 'has'.

The modal auxiliary verbs that are helpful in this particular lesson are 'will' and 'shall'.

Objective

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to use the perfective and progressive aspect appropriately in sentences.

It is important for you to have adequate knowledge of primary auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliary verbs and subject-verb agreement rules in order to handle this lesson effectively.

We have three types of primary auxiliary verbs; these are 'be', 'do', and 'have'.


The three have other forms. These forms are:
1. 'be', 'am', 'is', 'was', 'are', 'been','being', ' were' and 'be'.
2. 'do', 'do, 'did', 'doing' and 'done'.
3. 'have', 'had', 'have', 'having' and 'has'

The modal auxiliary verbs that are helpful in this particular lesson are: 'will'and 'shall'.

Progressive Aspect

The progressive aspect is also referred to as the continuous aspect. It is used with the present, past and future tenses to show actions going on for a period of time.

John is walking to school.

The perfect aspect is used with the past, present and future tense to indicate actions that have been completed.

John has arrived at school.


Verbs

In this lesson, we will learn about verbs. In particular we shall look at the perfective and progressive aspects of these verbs.

The progressive Aspect

The progressive aspect is also referred to as the continuous aspect. It is used with the present, past and future tenses to show actions going on for a period of time.

John is going to school



 

For a temporary action which may not be happening at the time of speaking for example:

(NOTE: the action is not taking place at the moment of speaking)

For an action already arranged to take place in the near future,for example,

In the present progressive aspect, three forms of the verb 'be' that is 'is' 'am' and 'are' are used with the main verb in its ____ing form as you may have noticed from the correct answers.

The past progressive.

This aspect is used to indicate:

a) An action that was happening at some time in the past for example,

Anyango was sleeping in class.
b) Persistent habits, for example,

Nakato was always yawning.

b) Persistent habits, for example,

Nakato was always yawning.

Future progressive

This is the same as future continuous.It talks about;

a) Actions that will be going on for some time in the future,for example

Juma will be going to school next week.

b) Actions in the future which are already planned, for example,
Kamau will be meeting us next year.



b) Actions in the future which are already planned, for example,
Kamau will be meeting us next year.

The present perfect

This tense is used to:
a) Describe past events which though completed, their effect is still evident in the present.


The present perfect

This tense is used to:
a) Describe past events which though completed their effect is still evident in the present.

b) Describe actions that have been recently completed or finished. e.g

The plane has taken off

More examples:

The past perfect

The past perfect tense  is used to:

Describe an action that was completed before a certain time in the past.

The future perfect
This aspect is used to describe actions and events which are expected to be completed or finished by a certain time in the future.


More examples of Future perfect are:

  1. They will have gone home by the time you arrive.
  2. Jean will have cooked dinner by the time the guests arrive.
  3. By midnight , we will have loaded the cargo onto the ship.
  4. He will have left before you go to see him.

    Objective

    By the end of this lesson you should be able to identify and use interjections appropriately.

    Interjections

    This lesson introduces us to interjections and their use.

     

    What is an Interjection?

    An interjection is a word or short phrase used in speech to gain attention, to exclaim, protest or command. Interjections can be used to show emotion such as surprise or shock.
    Interjections are often found at the beginning of a sentence, especially in speech, and are commonly followed by an exclamation mark or a comma. Every community uses interjections, can you think of any from your community?

    Wooi!

    Ouch!


    When an interjection expresses a strong emotion, it is punctuated with an exclamation mark. On the other hand, when it expresses only a mild emotion, it is punctuated with a comma.Note that an interjection ends with an exclamation mark (!) and the word that follows begins with a capital letter.

    Background Information

    For you to handle the lesson effectively, you need prior knowledge of phrases, and specifically the definition and functions of a phrase. A phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.Therefore an adverb phrase is a group of words that form part of a sentence and modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

    Objectives

    By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
    1. Identify the constituents of the adverb phrase.
    2. Explain the functions of the adverb phrase.
    3. Use adverb phrases correctly.

    Adverb Phrases

    This lesson introduces you to adverb phrases. They are also referred to as adverbial phrases.

    A very good road

    What is a Phrase?

    A phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

    The water flows beautifully downsream



    Objectives;

    By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
    1. Identify relative clauses correctly.
    2. Use relative clauses appropriately in sentences

    Clauses

    In this lesson, we shall look at clauses.


    A Clause

    A clause is a group of words that has a subject and predicate. It can be a sentence on its own or form part of a sentence. When a clause forms part of a sentence, it is called a subordinate or dependent clause. A subordinate clause relies on the main or independent clause to convey meaning. For example,


    In this lesson, we shall look at relative clauses.

    A relative clause is a group of words that is introduced by a relative pronoun. Examples of relative pronouns are:
    Who
    Whose
    Whom
    Which / that

    A relative clause gives extra information about the noun(s) in the main clause.

    It is important for a learner to have knowledge of tenses and simple sentence structures such as the subject - verb - object structure, in order to handle the lesson effectively.
    There are two voices in English: The Active voice and the Passive voice.

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
    a) Identify sentences in the active and passive voice.
    b) Change sentences from the active voice to the passive voice and vice versa.

    Active and Passive Voice

    In this lesson, you are going to learn about active and passive voice.

    Study the following photograph.

    If you were to describe it, the following would be possible descriptions:


    1. The boy is holding a cat.


    2. The cat is being held by the boy.

    Sentence 1. is active while sentence 2. is passive. Read on for more information about active and passive voices in English.

    An active sentence gives prominence to the doer of the action, that is, the subject. In this case,the sentence states:
    a) The doer of the action
    b) The action
    c) The receiver of the action
    In the active voice, the doer of the action must be mentioned

    For example:

    Juma polished the shoes.


    Active voice

    A passive sentence will give prominence to the receiver of the action (object). In this case, the sentence states:
    a) The receiver of the action.
    b) The action.
    c) The doer of the action.
    Note that Mentioning the doer of the action is optional.

    For example:

    The shoes were polished ( by Juma).

    When a sentence changes from active voice to the passive voice the subject changes to the object position and the object to the subject position. Note the change in the positions of the subject and the object in the following sentences.


    When a sentence changes from the active voice to the passive voice, the object in the active sentence becomes the new subject in the passive sentence.

    Active Voice

    In active voice emphasis is on the subject while in passive voice emphasis is on the receiver of the action or the object.
    The tense of the verb in the active voice changes when the sentence is changed to passive voice.

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
    1. Identify adjectives in sentences.
    2. Use adjectives appropriately in sentences.

    Order of Adjectives

    In this lesson we shall learn the use and order of adjectives.

    Order of Adjectives

    An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. As seen in the description of the buffalo ,nouns and pronouns can be described by several adjectives at the same time for example:

    A huge buffalo.

    A fierce buffalo.

    A black buffalo.

    A male buffalo.


    Purpose - describes what something is used for. They often end in -ing. An example of this is A walking stick.


    An old man with a walking stick

    Material - describes what something is made from, for example, A wooden spoon.

    Shape - describes how something looks like. For example, a round- faced clock.

    Describing Nouns and pronouns

    An Adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun.Nouns and pronouns can be described by several adjectives at the same time for example:
    Mariamu has lovelylong, dark hair.
    The underlined words are the adjectives that describe the noun 'hair'
    When we use more than one adjective before a noun or pronoun, there is a preferred order. This order is referred to as the order of adjectives.

    The use of the correct order makes the sentence run smoothly and grammatically correct.


    Adjectives are divided into two main categories; these are opinion and fact.

    Opinion Adjectives
    They explain what one thinks about somebody, something or situation. Other people may not necessarily share the opinion.

    Opinions can vary from one individual to another. Different people would express different opinions about the house. For example, you can view it as a beautiful and your friend might say its horrible.

    Fact Adjectives

    These are adjectives which describe size, age, shape, colour, origin, make/material and purpose. the following are examples of opinions and facts.

    Fact Adjectives

    These are adjectives which describe size, age, shape, colour, origin, make/material and purpose. the following are examples of opinions and facts.

    Red and orange flowers

    Order of Adjectives

    Size - tells you how big or small something is, for example a large envelope.


    Age - tells you how young or old something or someone is, for example, Fort Jesus is an ancient building.


    Colour - describes the colour of something. For example, A blue dress

    Origin - describes where something/someone comes from, for example, A Kenyan footballer.

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION

    For this lesson, prior knowledge of the definition of an adverb will be necessary. You should also be familiar with the different parts of speech. Let us remind ourselves what an adverb is. An adverb is a word used to modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

    The road leads to the top of the hill

    Objectives

    By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
    1. Identify adverbs of place and degree in sentences.
    2. Use adverbs of place and degree correctly and appropriately.

    ADVERBS

    In this lesson we will learn about adverbs of place and degree.

    Bull fighting can be extremely dangerous.

    Click the circle and read the sentences below paying attention to the adverbs used in each case:

     

    The highlighted words in the sentences are adverbs of place.

    They are used to indicate where something happens or where something goes

    Adverbs of place answer the question 'where'
    Here are more examples of adverbs of place. Write them down;

    Downstairs, elsewhere, nearby, down, eastwards, there, inland, behind, anywhere and indoors

    Adverbs of degree, tell how much or to what extent something happened. They tell us about the intensity of an action, that is, a verb, an adjective or another adverb. For example:

      • I
        almost collapsed after taking part in the marathon.
      • Our principal was quite irritated by the scantily dressed student.
      • The rain was enough for people to begin ploughing.
      • This is a fast car.
      • Nwoye seldom visits his rural home for fear of witchcraft.

      The highlighted words show the intensity of an action, adjective or adverb. These adverbs, answer the question 'to what extent.' Other examples of adverbs of degree are: very, extremely, rarely, hardly, often, too, really, scarcely, just and nearly.

      Adverbs of degree modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb in a sentence, for example,


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