Esoma Online Revision Resources

Writing - English Form 2

Public writing

Effective writing


By the end of the lesson, you should be able to spell words correctly.


This lesson guides you on how to improve your spelling.

Good Spelling Habits

Good spelling habits can be developed through the following techniques:
1. Pronunciation of the word, studying and writing it down.
2. Learn to spell the words by breaking them into syllables and use the dictionary to confirm the correct pronunciation and spelling.
The rule is LOOK at the word, SAY the word, THINK about it, WRITE the word and CHECK the spelling.
3. You need prior knowledge of spelling rules.

How to study a word

1. Look at the word
-How does it look?
-What does it mean?
2. Say the word
-Did you say it as you normally would?
-What are the vowel and consonants sounds?

3. Think about the word
-How is each sound spelled?
-Did you note any prefixes, suffixes, or other word parts?
4. Write the word
-Did you form the letters carefully?
-Did you think about the sounds and letters?
5. Check the spelling
-Did you write the word correctly?
-Do you need to write it again?

Words are misspelled because of poor pronunciation. This is through:
1. Omission of letters in words
Enviroment- environment
Campain - campaign
Hemsphere - hemisphere
2. Addition of letters in words
Arguements - arguments
Wellcome - welcome
Pronounciation - pronunciation

3. Change of letters in words
Repeatation - repetition
indiginous - indigenous
Indefinate - indefinite

4. Transposition of letters in words
amination - animation
prespiration - perspiration
charasteristics - characteristics

5.Misspelling is also caused due to poor application of affixation rules through prefixes and suffixes
Prefixes-it is where a letter (s) is added at the beginning of the word to form a new word. When a prefix is added, the spelling of the original word does not change.
If the prefix ends with the same letter as that which begins the word, both letters are retained.


In this lesson we will discuss various devices used in developing paragraphs


By the end of the lesson you should be able to develop paragraphs using different devices.

What is a paragraph?

What is a Paragraph?

A paragraph is a group of related sentences that work together to explain or develop one main idea.

The main idea in a paragraph is clearly expressed in a topic sentence which usually comes at the beginning of the paragraph.

What comes after the topic sentences are the supporting details. They make up the body of a paragraph by giving details to develop and support the main idea.

Finally, there is the clincher sentence. This is the closing sentence, which restates the main idea of a paragraph using different words. The clincher sentence summarizes the paragraph.

The Great Rift-valley

Kenya is one of the best tourist destinations in the world. First, the Kenyan people are friendly and enjoy having the tourists around. Secondly, there are diverse breathtaking sceneries for instance, Mount Kenya, migration of the wildebeest, the Great Rift-valley among others. Finally, its sandy beaches are spectacular. Therefore, this makes Kenya a desirable place to visit.

Giving reasons and examples

A paragraph can be developed by giving reasons and examples. Reasons are logical statements that answer the question 'WHY' while examples are specific objects, situations, incidents that explain or relate to the main idea. Examples are introduced by words like; for instance, for example, such as, among others.

Read the paragraph below:

Overgrazed land

There are various causes of soil erosion. One major cause is poor farming practices, for example; farming on steep slopes, non-rotation of crops and overgrazing. Natural calamities also lead to soil erosion. Such natural calamities include floods, landslides and whirlwinds. Another cause of soil erosion is deforestation which refers to the cutting down of trees without replacing them. The reasons cited above have been known to leave productive land barren.

The paragraph above illustrates how reasons and examples can be used to develop paragraphs.

Informal Letter of Apology

In this topic you are going to be taken through the general layout of writing an apology letter.

For you to have a better understanding of this lesson, you should have adequate knowledge of;
1. the general layout of formal and informal letters
2. appropriate register for formal and informal letters
3. Addressing and signing off procedure
4. paragraph development
A formal letter is also referred to as either an official or business letter.


By the end of the lesson, you should be able to use appropriate register and format in writing a letter of apology.

Formal letter

A formal letter of apology is written when one wants to apologize for a wrong deed

to express a feeling that one is sorry for doing wrong or causing a problem. Such a letter is usually addressed to the person or institution that has been offended.The following are the parts of a formal letter:

Situations that may require the writing a lette rof apology include:

1.Arriving or reporting to school late.

2.Failure to do or complete assignments.

3.Being rude to a teacher or fellow students.

Study Writing

In this lesson we shall discuss study writing


By the end of the lesson you should be able to communicate effectively through descriptive essays.

Descriptive writing

Descriptive writing is an attempt to vividly convey people's impressions to the audience or the reader. You can describe a process, activity or static features. The description should appeal to the reader's sense of sight, sound, smell, taste and touch. However, you may not appeal to all the senses at the same time.

Step by Step description

This is describing everything from one step to another and showing where each detail is located. For example, in describing a tree, you can begin by describing the roots then the stem, followed by the branches and lastly the leaves to create a whole picture.

A video recording is one of the best ways of capturing breathtaking scenes. It is also an easier way of sharing experiences because it brings reality to life. Likewise a good description creates strong emotions and moods like fear and excitement among others. In addition, it creates clear mental pictures of people, places and things.

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