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Suggested Practical Activities in Livestock Parasites
Visit a livestock yard collect in a safe container the following parasites.
Ticks, Lice, Fleas, Keds and Tsetse flies
Visit a slaughter house collect in a safe container the following internal parasites Tapeworms, roundworms and Liver-flukes. (It is important to seek the assistance of the slaughter staff)
In your previous studies it was clear to you that livestock diseases and parasites have high economic effects in livestock production. Parasites vectors to various livestock, damage organs of animals and predisposes them to secondary infections.
Parasites have the following effects on livestock:
- They are vectors for animal diseases
- Damage and block organs making the inefficient
- Predispose livestock to diseases
- Lower quality of products
The living organisms that cause diseases in livestock include:
- A reduction in the number of red blood cells. Limits the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and its necessary for the completion of a parasite's life cycle.
- Lack or loss of appetite for food.
- A taxonomic class within the arthropoda phylum made up of invertebrates with two segments.
- A phylum in the animal kingdom consisting of invertebrate animals having an association.
- A means of giving liquid medicine by mouth to animals to control internal
- An organism that affects the external surfaces of an organism e.g. ticks
- Extreme weight loss due to illness or starvation.
- An organism that lives inside the body of an organism; such as a tapeworm
- (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Includes crustaceans;
exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed.
-An organism that nourishes and supports a parasite; it does not benefit and is often harmed by the parasite.
- A taxonomic class within the phylum arthropod made up of invertebrates that have a chitinous insects; millipedes; centipedes.
- An organism that harbors a parasite typically providing nourishment and shelter
- Swelling from excessive accumulation of watery fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities other nutrients around the body, and excretion of waste products.
-An organism that lives in or on another and obtains nourishment and/or shelter from the host without benefiting or killing the host.
is an association between two organisms in which one is called a parasite and the other a host in the content of the association. The parasite benefits by nourishing itself at the expense of the host.
- Any of the segments of a tapeworm; they contain both male and female reproductive organstheir body and four pairs of legs but no antennae.
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
- describe host-parasite relationship.
- identify different parasites.
- describe the lifecycles of parasites.
- explain methods of parasite control in livestock.
Livestock Health II (Parasites)
Introduction to parasitism in livestock
Parasites cause considerable damage to livestock and loss of income to farmers. In this lesson, we shall explore the effects of parasites on livestock and the most susceptible stage of their lifecycle in order to successfully control them.
Parasitism is an association between two organisms in which one is called a parasite and the other a host in the context of the association. The parasite benefits by nourishing itself at the expense of the host.
Apart from deriving nourishment and protection from the livestock, other effects of parasites include;
1.Irritate their hosts, reducing feeding time
2.Affect growth rate
3.Reduce production in these animals.
Parasites derive nourishment and / or protection from a host while the host derive nothing in return.
Host usually loses blood becoming anaemic and gets exposed to secondary infections as well as destruction of its organs.
They refer to parasites found on outside the body of the livestock on or under the skin of the host. Most of the ectoparasites belong to the class Arthropoda with two distinct classes namely (i) Insecta for example Tsetse flies, Lice, Keds, Fleas.
(ii) Arachnida like Ticks and Mites Various microenvironments eg. under the tail, belly region, anal region around the neck among other areas, favour the proliferation for different types of external parasites. This affects the distribution of the parasites and livestock production in general.
Control of tsetse flies
Methods of controlling tsetse flies include:
- Chemical method for example use of insecticides.
- Biological method for example sterilization of males flies.
- Physical method for example use of fly traps.
- Cultural method for example destruction of breeding grounds.
- Creation of buffers areas.
View the video to appreciate methods of tsetse flies control
This is the single most important ecto-parasite in tropical Africa of all the known external parasites.
Ticks have an incomplete life cycle comprising of the following developmental stages;
- Six legged larva
- Eight legged larva
- Eightlegged adult
The most common harmful effects of ticks on livestock include
- Cause injury to the animal
- Spread very dangerous diseases
- Cause irritation that leads to scratching and self-inflicted wounds in sheep lowering the quality of wool.
Life cycle of one-host tick
These are ticks that require only one host to complete their life cycle
The developmental stages of a one-host tick are completed on one animal. The lifecycle of one host tick is spent on same host. Eggs on the ground hatch into larvae. The larvae climbs on the host suck blood and become engorged. The larva then moults into nymph. This feeds and changes in to adult.
Examples include: blue tick, Cattle tick, and the Texas fever tick
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