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Aviation Syllabus

450 - AVIATION TECHNOLOGY

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

At the end of this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Develop an insight and understanding in the design, operation and maintenance of aircraft;
  2. Acquire skills in the selection, use and care for materials, tools and equipment;

3.  acquire safety awareness in a working environment;
4.  read and interpret related drawings;
5.  acquire knowledge of weather and atmosphere as it affects aeroplanes;
6.  identify different educational and occupational opportunities
available in aviation field.

1.1.0  SAFETY

1.1.1  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  state safety rules to be observed in aviation working environment;
(b)  demonstrate correct safety practices;
(c)  differentiate classes of fire;
(d)  use the appropriate methods of fire fighting;
(e)  apply correct First Aid procedures;
(f)  demonstrate the uses of various safety equipment in the aircraft;
(g)  observe safety procedures while ground handling an aircraft.

1.2.0  Content
1.2,1  Behaviour and dress;- Workshop rules; personal dress.
1.2.2  Movement of Personnel, materials and equipment
1.2.3  Storage of tools, materials and equipment.
1.2.4  Ventilation and lighting.
1.2.5  Fire and fire fighting:- classes of fire, fire drills, types of fire extinguishers
(hand held and engine), and fire fighting materials and equipment.
1.2.6  First Aid:- first aid kit, cuts and bums, shocks, body contamination,
foreign bodies in the eye artificial respiration.
1.2.1  Noise level in an aviation working environment.
1,2.8  Safety equipment:- oxygen (breathing), seatbelts and harness,
life jackets and life rafts, escape chute, ejection seats and parachutes (mention only).
1,2.9  Safety procedures when ground handling aircraft:-jacking and trestling,
towing, refuelling/defuelling, picketing/chocking, starting, safe distance from
intake, exhaust and propellers.

2.0.0  THEORY OF FLIGHT

2.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  state briefly the historical development of aviation;
(b)  identify the various types of aircraft;
(c)  identify the major parts of the aeroplane;
(d)  explain the concepts of flight;
(e)  construct simple aircraft;
(f)  control simple aircraft in flight;
(g)  demonstrate the flow of air over different body shapes;
(h)  explain the effect of airflow on aerofoil;
(i)  describe the laminar and turbulent flow;
0)  state the wing nomenclature;
(k)  identify various wing shapes;
(1)  demonstrate the wing lift distribution;
(m)  describe various types of drag;
(n)  explain factors affecting lift and drag;
(0)  distinguish the aircraft axes;
(P)  describe the aircraft movements about the axes;
(q)  explain the effects of control surface deflection on lift distribution;
(r)  differentiate between primary and secondary controls;
(s)  operate aircraft controls;
(t)  distinguish the various forms of stability;
(u)  explain the contributions of various stabilizers;
(V)  calculate the mach number;
(w)  classify flow regimes;
(x)  explain transonic effects.

Content

Brief historical development of aviation.
2.2.2  Types of aircraft:- light-than-air; heavier-than-air
2.2.3  Major parts of aeroplane:- fuselage, undercarriage, empenage, propulsive units and wings.
2.2.4  Science concepts (mass, forces, moments, energy, laws of motion and
Bernoulli's principle), forces governing flight (lift, weight, thrust and drag),
straight and level flight, change of altitude, change of speed.
2.2.5  Simple aircraft:- balloons, kites and hand glider.
2.2.6  Control of simple aircraft:- Speed and direction.
2.2.7  Air flow:- Spheres, flat plates and aerofoils.
2.2.8  Effect of Airflow: generation of lift (lift, centre of gravity and aerodynamic
centre/centre of pressure), drag, separation, stall.
2.2.9  Laminar and turbulent flow:- Boundary layer, laminar boundary layer,
turbulent boundary layer, separation point.
2.2.10 Wing nomenclature:- Span, aspect ratio, tip, root, chord, leading edge and trailing edge.
2.2.11 Wing shapes:- Rectangular, tapered, elliptic and delta.
2.2.12 Wing lift distribution.
2,2.13  Types of drag;- Induced drag, parasite drag, skin friction drag, form drag, trim drag, interference drag, wave drag.
2.2.14  Lift and drag:- Angle of attack, velocity, density, surface area, aerofoil shape
(lift coefficient and drag coefficient).
2.2.15 Aircraft Axes:- Longitudinal, lateral and normal vertical).
2.2.16 Aircraft movement:- Roll, pitch and yaw.
2.2.17 Control surface deflection.
2.2.18  Controls:- (i) Primary controls (ailerons, rudder and elevators);
(ii) Secondary controls (flaps, slats and spoilers).
2.2.19 Operation of aircraft controls.
2.2.20 Stability:- Equilibrium, static stability, dynamic stability and instability
(static and dynamic).
2.2.21  Aircraft stabilizers:- Tail plain (horizontal) and fm (vertical).
2.2.22 Mach number.
2.2.23 Flow regimes:- Subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic.
2.2.24  Transonic effect:- Shock waves, high speed stall, wave drag and swept wings.

3.0.0  METEOROLOGY

3.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  define International Standard Atmosphere (I.S.A);
(b)  read and interpret weather instruments;
(c)  identify various types of clouds;
(d)  explain the effects of clouds on aircraft in flight;
(e)  explain the different atmospheric layers.

3.2.0  Content
3.2.1  The atmosphere. International Standard Atmosphere (I.S.A.); Temperature
(lapse rate), pressure, density and humidity.
3.2.2  Weather instruments:- Thermometer, barometer, windsock/wand vane,
anemometer, rain gauge, anemometer, hygrometer.
3.2.3  Types of clouds:- Stratus, nimbus, cumulus, cirrus and cumulonimbus.
3.2.4  Effects of clouds:- Rain, thunderstorm, lightning, turbulence and poor visibility.
3,2.5  Atmospheric layers:- Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere.

4.0.0  AIRCRAFT PROPULSION

4.1.0  Specific Objectives

At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  explain how thrust is generated;
(b)  describe the principle of operation of piston engine;
(c)  describe the design and construction of a piston engine;
(d)  identify piston engine systems;
(e)  disassemble, service and assemble piston engine;
(f)  describe the principle of operation of the gas turbine engines;
(g)  describe the design and construction of gas turbine engines;
(h)  identify the various gas turbine engine systems;
(i)  describe the working principles of a propeller;
(])  identify various types of propellers.

4.2.0  Content
4.2.1  Generation of thrust by:- Propeller, gas turbine, rockets and ramjet.
4.2.2  Principles of engine operation:- Introduction of piston engine (parts   and terms); Operation - 4 stroke cycle
4.2.3  Piston engine design and construction:- Engine design and engine parts.
4,2.4  Engine system:- Fuel, ignition, lubrication, cooling, induction and exhaust
4.2.5  Engine:- Disassembly, service (cleaning, inspection, and parts replacement),
assembling, testing and tuning.
4.2.6  Principles of gas turbine engines:- Gas turbine engines (parts and
terms), engine cycles, intake (fixed and variables), compressors
(centrifugal and axial). Combustion  chamber (tubular
{can}, can annular and annular), turbine, exhaust nozzles (fixed and
variable).
4.2.7  Gas turbine engine design and construction:- Engine design
(Turboprop, Turbo jet and Turbo fan). Construction - materials.
4.2.8  Gas turbine engine system:- Fuel, ignition, lubrication, cooling and
starting.
4.2.9  Propellers:- Nomenclature, basic aerodynamics (lift, pitch, tipspeed, twist and slip).
4.2.10  Types of propellers:- Fixed pitch and variable pitch.

5.0.0  AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

5.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  explain the various loads acting on an aircraft;
(b)  explain the effects of the loads acting on aircraft structures;
(c)  identify and assemble the different parts and components used in aircraft
construction;
(d)  describe different types of aircraft construction;
(e)  perform simple visual inspection on structures for faults;
(f)  state the use of non destructive testing techniques;
(g)  perform simple patch repair on aircraft skin.

5.2.0  Content
5.2.1  Loads:- Tensile, compressive, bending, shear and torsional.
5.2.2  Loading effects:- Fatigue, strain, twisting, bending, warpage and buckling.
5.2.3  Parts and components:- Wing and empenage (skin, spars, ribs
and stringers). Fuselage (skin, longerons, formers, frames and bulk-heads).
5.2.4 Types of aircraft constructions:- Monocoque, semi-monocoque (stressed skin)
and warren girder (truss).
5.2.5  Visual inspection:- Cracks, corrosion and dents.
5.2.6 Non destructive testing (N.D.T.):- Dye-penetrants, ultra-sonic test, x-ray
and magnetic particle.
5.2.7  Simple patch repair:- Types of repairs and techniques of repairs

6.0.0  CRAFT SYSTEMS

6.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  identify various aircraft systems;
(b)  state the functions of each system;
(c)  describe the principle operation of each system;
(d)  identify and rectify minor faults.

6.2.0  Content
6.2.1  Aircraft systems:- Common instruments (flight instruments and power (engine)
instruments), electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic, pressurization and air
conditioning, communication and navigation, manual controls (engine and flight)
automatic flight controls, fuel systems, fire protection, anti-icing and de-icing
systems, oxygen systems.
6.2.2  System functions.
6.2.3  Principles of operation:- Instruments (pressure, electromagnetic and digital,
gyroscopic, thermal). Electrical (power generation, power regulation, and power
distribution), Hydraulic and pneumatic (generation, regulation and distribution)
Pressurization and air conditioning (generation, regulation and distribution),
Navigation and communication (transmission and reception), Automatic flight
controls (command, sense, compute, and activate). Controls (manual and power
control). Landing gear.
6.2.4  Types of faults:- Instruments (electrical and mechanical), electrical
(continuity, short, ground and appliance failure), hydraulic and pneumatic
(leaks pump failure, line blockage and fluid level).

7.0.0  AIRCRAFT HARDWARE

7.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  identify various types of aircraft hardware;
(b)  select appropriate hardware for a given job;
(c)  use the correct tools and equipment for a given operation.

7.2.0  Content
7.2.1  Types of hardware:- Fasteners (threaded and rivets), Locking (keys and keyways,
washers, pins, clips, plates), Control cables and fittings (cables, end fittings, turn
buckles, pulleys, chains, sprockets and bell cranks).
7.2.2  Selection of appropriate hardware
7.2.3  Tools and equipment:- Fastenings tools (spanners, screw drivers), riveting tools,
swaging tools, locking toots (pliers). Special tools and equipment (stud extractors,
thread pitch gauge, tensiometer and cranes).

8.0.0  MATERIALS

8.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  identify various types of materials used in the aircraft;
(b)  differentiate between ferrous and non-ferrous metals;
(c)  identify various types of alloys;
(d)  describe the physical and mechanical properties of given materials;
(e)  identify suitable materials used for given parts of an aeroplane;
(f)  use different materials to make selected projects;
(g)  handle various materials safely.

7.2.0  Content
7.2.1  Types of materials:- Plastics, glass, fabric, composites, fluids (gases, fiiels
and oils), metals, wood and wood products (soft and hardwoods, wood
products e,g. veneer and plywood).
7.2.2  Ferrous and non-ferrous metals:- Ferrous metals (mild st?l,  carbon steel,
cast iron and wrought iron). Non-ferrous metals (aluminium, copper,
magnesium, lead, titanium, and chromium.
7.2.3  Types of alloys:- Aluminium alloys, copper alloys, steel alloys, magnesium
alloys and titanium alloys.
7.2.4  Physical, mechanical and chemical properties:- Physical properties (weight,
colour, structure and texture), Mechanical properties (hardness, britdeness,
ductility, malleability, strength and toughness), Chemical properties
(corrosion and etching).
7,2.5  Application of materials:- Structures, consumables, components.
7.2,6  Safety precautions:- Handling and storage.
7.2,7  Selected project:- aircraft parts and models

8.0.0  FABRICATION

8.L0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the leaner should be able to:
(a)  select materials for a given job;
(b)  perform a given operation correctly and safely using the proper tools;
(c)  identify common types of threads;
(d)  cut threads using proper tools;
(e)  form materials to required shapes;
(f)  make given joints;
(g)  perform given finishing processes;
(h)  perform given thermal joining tasks using correct tools and equipment;
(i)  explain different processes of heat treatment;
(j)  observe safety precautions when performing tasks.
8.2.0  Content
8.2.1  Materials;- Sheet metal and plates, metal-bars and sections.
8.2.2  Operations and hand tools:- Laying-out, measuring and checking, cutting (drilling,
sawing, chiseling, filing and shearing),  finishing (polishing and painting).
8.2.3  Types of threads:- Metric threads, unified threads, British Standard Whitworth,
acme, square and buttress,
8.2.4  Thread cutting:- External (die and stock) and internal (tap and wrench).
8.2.5  Material forming:- Bending and folding, rolling and dimpling
8.2.6  Types of joints:- Riveted joints and simple self secured joint.
8.2.7  Finishing treatment:- Anodizing, cladding, carbonizing.
8.2.8  Thermal Joining:- Soft soldering, brazing and gas and arc welding (lap joint and
butt joint).
8.2.9  Heat Treatment:- Hardening, tempering, normalizing, annealing and case hardening.
8.2.10 Safety:- Personal/personnel, equipment, tools and work

9.0.0  RELATED DRAWING
9.1.0  Specified Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:

select and use drawing instruments and materials;
draw given lines and symbols;
print letters and numbers correctly;
lay-out on drawing paper;
draw given geometrical figures;
read given plane scales;
draw given figures to scale;
make surface developments of geometrical figures;
make free-hand, three-dimensional sketches of components;
draw orthographic views of components in 1st and 3rd tingle projection;
dimension drawings correctly;
draw pictorial views of components;
make sectional drawings;
interpret and make assembly drawings correctly;
draw sectional views of assembly drawings.


Content

Materials and equipment:- Materials (paper, pencil, and erasers). Drawing
equipment and instruments (drawing set, tee-square, drawing board).

9.2.2  Laying-out on drawing paper.
9.2.3  Lines and symbols:- Lines (types of lines) and symbols (drawing).
9.2.4  Letters and numbers;- Letters, numbers and Plane geometry i.e angles, circles
and  arcs, triangles and quadrilaterals and regular polygons.
9.2.5  Use of scale ratios:- Full size, enlargement and reduction.
9.2.6  Drawing of figures to scale:-Geometrical figures and machine parts.
9.2.7  Surface developments;- Cubes, cones, pyramids, and cylinders.
9.2.8  Free-hand sketches in isometric, oblique and perspective.
9.2,9  Orthographic views;- 1st angle projection and 3rd angle projection.
9.2.10 Dimensioning:-Methods and rules.
9.2.11 Pictorial views:- Oblique and isometric.
9.2.12 Sections and related symbol s
9.2.13 Assembly drawings:- Pictorial, orthographic and exploded.
9.2.14 Sectional views,

10.0.0  OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION

10.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should have acquired information on:
(a)  range of occupational opportunities in the aviation field;
(b)  entry qualifications for occupations in aviation fields;
(c)  entry requirements for further training in aviation fields.

10.2.0 Content
10.2.1  Occupations:- Piloting, air Craft maintenance engineer, air traffic controllers, aircraft
engineer flight engineer, aircraft technician.
10,2.2 Entry qualifications for Aeronautical engineering, Aircraft maintenance,
Air traffic control (A.L), Flying (piloting).


LIST OF BASIC WORKSHOP TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
(for a class of 20 students)

Number Required
 

  Shears

  Forming Roll

  Lathe

  Riveting gun

  Riveting backing bar

  Drilling machine

  Oven

  Soldering kit

  Spray gun

  Arc welding kit

11,  Tap and die set

9.2.2  Laying-out on drawing paper.
9.2.3  Lines and symbols:- Lines (types of lines) and symbols (drawing).
9.2.4  Letters and numbers;- Letters, numbers and Plane geometry i.e angles, circles
and  arcs, triangles and quadrilaterals and regular polygons.
9.2.5  Use of scale ratios:- Full size, enlargement and reduction.
9.2.6  Drawing of figures to scale:-Geometrical figure sand machine parts.
9.2.7  Surface developments;- Cubes, cones, pyramids, and cylinders.
9.2.8  Free-hand sketches in isometric, oblique and perspective.
9.2,9  Orthographic views;- 1st angle projection and 3rd angle projection.
9.2.10 Dimensioning:-Methods and rules.
9.2.11 Pictorial views:- Oblique and isometric.
9.2.12 Sections and related symbol s
9.2.13 Assembly drawings:- Pictorial, orthographic and exploded.
9.2.14 Sectional views,

10.0.0  OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION

10.1.0  Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should have acquired information on:
(a)  range of occupational opportunities in the aviation field;
(b)  entry qualifications for occupations in aviation fields;
(c)  entry requirements for further training in aviation fields.

10.2.0 Content
10.2.1  Occupations:- Piloting, air Craft maintenance engineer, air traffic controllers, aircraft
engineer flight engineer, aircraft technician.
10,2.2 Entry qualifications for Aeronautical engineering, Aircraft maintenance,
Air traffic control (A.L), Flying (piloting).


LIST OF BASIC WORKSHOP TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
(for a class of 20 students)

Spec    Number Required
 

  1.   Shears
  2.   Forming Roll
  3.   Lathe
  4.   Riveting gun
  5.   Riveting backing bar
  6.   Drilling machine
  7.   Oven
  8.   Soldering kit
  9.   Spray gun
  10.   Arc welding kit

11,  Tap and die set


12.  Pop-riveting gun  1
13.  Reamers  1 set
14.  Powered grinding machine  1
15.  Air compressor for pneumatic tools  1
16.  Mobile lifting gangtry  
17.  Monolocks  50 pieces
18.  Micrometer: (a) depth gauge  5
(b) inside measuring  5
(c) outside measuring  5
19.  Vernier Calipers  5
20.  Vernier hei?t gauge  5
21.  Dial test indicator  5
22.  Surface Table  1
23.  Hammer: (a) ball pein (700 gm)  5
(b) cross pein (200 gm)  5
24.  Plastic or hide faced mailed  5
25.  Set of centre and pin punches  5
26.  Set of chisel (flat cross-cut and round)  5
27.  Hand drill and set of small diameter drills  5
28.  Selection of different section, length  
  and cut files  5 (a set for each student)
29.  Hacksaw and blades  5
30.  A set of screw drivers  5
31.  Side cutting pliers  5
32.  Steel rule (graduated in inches  
  and millimetres)  20
33.  Outside and inside callipers  5
34.  Try-square  5
35.  Set of feeler gauges  5
36.  Pair of dividers (15 cm)  5
37.  Scriber  10
38.  Set of spanners  10
39.  Bench vice  10
40.  Hand wire brush  10
41.  Wire and sheet metal gauge  10 sets
42.  Snips  10
43.  Fire extinguisher  Appropriate to size of shop.
44.  First Aid Kit  1
45.  Goggles  2
46.  Dust coats  20
47.  Hand gloves  2
48.  Workshop shoes (each student)
49.  Tyre pressxire gauge  1
50.  Ear muff  5
51.  Thermometers  5

52.  Barometers  5
53.  Aeroplane shell  1
54.  Pair of scissors  20
55.  Drawing instruments (set)  20
56.  Angle plate  5
57.  Vee block  5
58.  Scribing block  5
59.  Paint brush  20
60.  Anvil  1
61.  Wire locking tool  1
62.  Stud extractors (sets)  5
63.  Thread pitch gauge  5
64.  Tensiometer/spring  5
65.  Shields  3
66.  Aircraft piston engine  5
67.  Sacks  3
68.  Trestles  3
69.  Towing arm  1
70.  Chocks  3
71.  Pickets  3
72.  Ground locks for aeroplane (as per aircraft)  7
73.  Contour maps  20
74.  Aviation posters/teaching aids
75.  Slide projector  1
76.  Overhead projector  1
77.  Hangar  1


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