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Classification I

Classification refers to placing of organisms into their respective groups which are known as taxa (one is a taxon), in relation to features or characteristics of the specific organism.

There are millions of living organisms on earth. Traditionally man classified organisms depending on their characteristics, habitat as well as the use to which the organisms could be put. Scientists classify them basing on their physical and physiological characterstics.

Classification also allows for easy identification, easy naming and study of the organisms. It is also easy to establish ancestral relationships between organisms using a classification system.

 

 

 

Classification of Organisms

Classification refers to placing of organisms into their respective groups which are known as taxa (one is a taxon), in relation to features or characteristics of the specific organism.

There are millions of living organisms on earth. Traditionally man classified organisms depending on their characteristics, habitat as well as the use to which the organisms could be put. Scientists classify them basing on their physical and physiological characterstics.

Classification also allows for easy identification, easy naming and study of the organisms. It is also easy to establish ancestral relationships between organisms using a classification system.

SUMMARY
Organisms are grouped into five major kingdoms namely;
1. Monera

2. Protoctista

3. Fungi

4. Plantae

5. Animalia.


The seven taxonomic units of a Kingdom, in descending order are:
           

1. Kingdom

2. Phylum/division

3. Class

4. Order

5. Family

6. Genus

7. Species

            

Binomial nomenclature is a system of naming organisms by

  assigning them a generic and specific name e.g., the lion belongs to the genus Panthera and species leo. The scientific name of the lion, therefore is "Panthera leo".

 

 

Background Information

In Primary Science study, you grouped living organisms as shown below::

 

LESSON OBJECTIVE

By the end of the lesson you should be able to

state the necessity and significance of classifying organisms.

 

Necessity and Significance of Classification

Organisms are classified according to similarities and differences. This is based on external and sometimes internal features of the organisms. The illustrations below indicate organisms with varying characteristics that can be used in classification.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Activity 1

Place the following animals into their respective groups by dragging and dropping method.

- Man - Lizard - Crab - Elephant

- Cockroach - Octopus - Warthog - roundworm

Drag and drop the following plants into the group of monocotyledons or dicotyledons.

Flow chart of classification of plants into monocots and dicots.

 

'  Onion bulb with leaves

'  Sisal plant

'  Rose flower

'  Banana plant

'  Pawpaw plant

'  Sugarcane plant

 

Correct answers

Monocots- sisal, onion, sugarcane

Dicots- Rose flower, banana and pawpaw

 

Voice and print

The placing of organisms into various groups based on their structural and physiological differences and similarities is called classification.

 

Necessity for Classifying Organisms

You have already learnt that Classification is important for:

1.) Easy identification of orgsnisms. 2) For scientific naming, so as to have universally accepted names. 3) For establishment of relationships between organisms and their ancestry.4) For easy study of organisms. 5) To facilitate orderly arrangement of biological information to avoid confusion.

 

Assignment

  1. List down as many living organisms as possible and place

      them in their respective kingdoms.

  1. With guidance from your teacher, assign scientific names to

      common plants and animals found within your school compound.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

In primary science you placed living things into two groups: plants and animals. Plants make their own food and animals feed on ready made food. You placed mushrooms in the group of non-green plants since they do not make their own food, but look like plants. Mushrooms, however, are not plants. Some organisms have been found to possess both plant and animal characteristics. For this reason, taxonomists have now placed organisms into five groups called kingdoms.

NB The kingdoms will be outlined in the course of the lesson.

GAME


 

LESSON OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:


1. Name the five kingdoms, giving an example in each case

2. Name the seven major taxonomic units of a Kingdom

3. Place one plant and animal in the taxonomic units in descending order

Activity
Use the drag and drop method to place the taxonomic names listed below into their appropriate taxonomic position.

TAXON

HUMAN

MAIZE

Kingdom

   

Phylum/division

   

Class

   

Order

   

Family

   

Genus

   

Species

   

 

TAXONOMIC NAMES:
Animalia, Monocotyledonae, Chordata, spermatophyte, primate, Mammalia, Graminales, Zea, Homo, Hominidae, sapiens,  Plantae.

                                        Human                                 Maize
Kingdom                      Animalia                                               Plantae
Phylum/division Chordata                                              Spermatophyte
Class                            Mammalia                                            Monocotyledonae
Order                           Primate                                     Graminae
Genus                           Homo                                                   Zea
Species                        sapiens                                                 mays

Incorrect answer (try again)

Units of Classification

 

 

 

 

In primary science you placed living things into two groups; plants and animals. Plants make their own food and animals feed on ready made food. You placed mushrooms in the group of non-green plants since they do not make their own food. Such organisms are not really plants. Some organisms have been found to possess both plant and animal characteristics. It therefore became necessary for taxonomists to place organisms into five groups called kingdoms.

The kingdoms will be outlined in the course of the lesson.

Currently, the Five-kingdom system of classification is used.
In this classification system, organisms are placed in the following groups:

1. Kingdom Monera- This group consists of bacteria such as Coccus, Bacillus and Vibrio. Examples are shown in the figure.

 

 

 

2. Kingdom Protoctista This group contains single celled organisms including Amoeba, Paramecium, Trypanosoma.See examples (Liver fluke and Trypanosome) in the figure.

 

 

 

3. Kingdom Fungi This kingdom includes Mushroom, Bread mould, Yeast, Rhizopus. The mushroom in the figure are growing on a dead tree trunk.






 

4. Kingdom Plantae This contains plants such as Maize, Bean and Fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Kingdom Animalia Contains animals for example Insect, Fish, Lizard, Bird, Human being.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANALOGY OF CLASSIFICATION

Planet earth is one huge body which supports life unlike other planets. It can be used as an analogy in classification

This planet is made up of five continents. The continents differ from each other in many ways but have some similarities such as climatic conditions and geographical features.

This can be likened to classification in which organisms are placed into five kingdoms. The organisms in a kingdom have some similarities and a wide range of differences.

Analogy of classification based on the map of Africa

Each continent is made up of regions. The African continent is made

up of several regions such as the East African region. This is likened

to the classification in which organisms in a kingdom are placed into

groups called Phyla/ Divisions. Members of a phylum/division have

more in common than members of a kingdom.

Analogy contd

 

Each region is made up of several countries for example Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania.

Rwanda and Burundi are countries which make up the East African region.

Similarly, several classes are found in a Phylum/ Division. Members of a classhave more in common than members of the same phylum/division.

Analogy of classification continued: -Provinces Vs Orders

Kenya is divided into provinces just like several orders make up one class. A province has a lot in common just as members of the same order. In Coast Province, for example, the most common group of people are the Mijikenda, who use Kiswahili as their major language.

Members of an order have many similarities.

District Vs Families

A province is further divided into districts, just like Order is

made up of several Families.

Members of the same family have more similarities than those of the same order.

Division Vs Genus

A district is further divided into divisions. This is likened to the

division of the families into genera. Members of a genus have a lot

more in common than members of a family. In a Division the people

are closely related, under one ancestry and have one area chief.

They have similar cultural habits.

Location Vs Species

INSERT LAMU MAP SHOWING DIVISIONS

A division is further divided into locations. This is likened to the

division of a genus into several species.

Members of the same species are so closely related that they can

interbreed to give rise to fertile (viable) offspring.

 

INSERT FLOWCHART OF GENUS PANTHERA AND SPECIES LEO AND PARDUS

 

Classification of Bean and Domestic Dog

An individual organism can be placed in different taxonomic units.

Examples:

Bean Plant
 

KINGDOM: Plantae

DIVISION/PHYLUM: Spermatophyta

CLASS: Angiospermae

ORDER: Rosales

FAMILY: Leguminosae

GENUS: Phaseolus

SPECIES: vulgaris


2. Domestic Dog
 

KINGDOM: Animalia

DIVISION/PHYLUM: Chordata

CLASS: Mammalia

ORDER: Carnivore

FAMILY: Canidae

GENUS: Canis

SPECIES: familiaris

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

You have already learnt how to classify an organism in various

taxonomic units. In this lesson, you will learn how organisms are

given scientific names.

Binomial Nomenclature

This refers to the giving of organisms two names: Genus name and specific name. The first name refers to the genus to which the organism belongs. The first and second names together refer to the species to which the organism belongs. For example, the scientific name of maize is Zea mays. Zea is the Genus to which maize belongs. Zea mays is the species.


 

LESSON OBJECTIVE

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to use Binomial nomenclature

to scientifically name a plant and an animal.

QUIZ

  1. Name the five kingdoms which organisms are classified.

2. List the taxonomic units in classifying a plant in ascending order.

  1. Fill in the correct taxonomic names of the following organisms.

Kingdom         
Phylum
Class

  1. The scientific name of a housefly is Musa domestica.What does Musa stand for?

(a) Which two of the following organisms are closely related?

Homo sapiens
Mangifera indica
Homo erectus
Canis familiaris


(b)Give a reason for your answer in (a) above

Answer

(a) Homo sapiens and  Homo erectus

(b) They belong to the same genus.

BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE

Binomial nomenclature refers to the system of assigning scientific names to organisms. The scientific name is derived from combining the genus name and the specific name.

This system of giving an organism a scientific name was started by Carolus Linnaeus in the 18th century.
The scientific name is given in the Latin language or made to sound Latin. This language which was widely by scientists is accepted as it does not change.

The generic name starts with a capital letter while the specific
name is all written in small letters.

Example 1: The common bean plant belongs to the genus Phaseolus and species vulgaris. The scientific name of the common bean plant is therefore Phaseolus vulgaris. The domestic dog belongs to genus Canis and species familiaris. Its scientific name is thus Canis familiaris.

When hand-written, the two parts of the name are underlined separately as shown:

1. Phaseolus vulgaris

2. Canis familiaris


Example 2: The following is the scientific name of the human being:

In print the scientific name is written in italics, e.g Phaseolus vulgaris and Canis familiaris.

.

 



 Classification I 

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