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EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

Early Childhood Development in Kenya should;

1 Provide education geared towards development of the child’s mental capabilities and physical growth;

2.Enable the child enjoy living and learning through play;

3.Develop the child’s self-esteem and self-confidence;

4.Enable the child to develop understanding and appreciation of his/her culture and environment;

5.Foster the child’s exploration skills, creativity, self-expression and discovery;

6.Identify children with special ' needs and align them with existing services;

7.Enable the child build good habits and acquire acceptable values and behaviours for effective living as an individual and a member of a group;

8.Foster the spiritual and moral growth of the child

9.Improve the status of the child’s health, care and nutritional needs, and link him/her with health services such as immunization, health check-ups growth and monitoring;

10.Enrich the child’s experiences to enable him/her to cope better with primary school life;

11.Develop the child’s easthetic and artistic skills.

This handbook is meant to enable pre-school teachers to interpret and utilize the ECDE syllabus more effectively when delivering ECDE curriculum. The handbook has been designed in a simple way to build capacity in per-school teachers on how to organize activities in various activity areas in a more integrated manner.

It should be understood that all the activities organized should be theme based on that one theme should cut across several activity areas. This handbook has two major sections, the methodology and the activity areas: Methodology : Various records to be kept and maintained by the pre school teachers are discussed. These includes the teacher’s administrative and professional records.

Activity Areas Section Under this section, content areas for all the nine activity areas are outlined. it should be understood that the activity area section has been developed in three levels depending on the age bracket of the children. These are; Day care (Level

1); for children aged 3 years and below, Pre-primary 1 (Level

2); for children aged 4 years and Pre-primary 2 (Level 3), for children aged 5 years. This section contains suggested hints for the teacher in relation to the activities children should perform when covering content in a particular theme. The section also contains suggested teaching and learning materials that should be used during various activities. However, it should be noted that the lists of suggested activities and materials are not exhaustive.

The teacher is expected to be more creative and come up with more activities and materials which can make learning more interesting and enjoyable for children. Order for the pre-school teacher to be more effective in the interpretation and utilization of the ECD syllabus, it is imperative for him or her make good use of the Teachers Handbook.

This document is meant to assist the teacher to facilitate teaching and learning more effectively. It should be clearly understood that this handbook is only meant to orient the teacher on how to interpret the ECD syllabus. It should therefore be used as a reference and not as a teaching document.

The sample scheme of work, lesson plans, progress and individualized education programme records are only meant to guide the teacher in preparing and planning for teaching. However, the teacher is expected to realize that learning activities for pre-school children can be made flexible enough to suit the prevailing environmental circumstances.

The teacher is expected to prepare thoroughly for the activities well in advance according to the selected theme. Sustainability of curiosity and interest in children can be enhanced through exposure of children to manipulative materials and a variety of activities. Pre-school teachers and caregivers should therefore use this handbook to get guidance on how to identify activities and materials that are appropriate for specific activity areas for a specific age group of children. The handbook also shows how activities for various content are developed from simple to complex as we move from level 1 to level

3. The teacher is expected to take note of this aspect, which caters for the developmental abilities and capabilities of young children. It is important for teachers to note that what is contained in this handbook is not exhaustive. They are expected to utilize the information in this book, together with their own knowledge, creativity and expertise to develop more activities and materials that will make learning for children interesting and enjoyable. INTRODUCTION

Children are curious, active and learn spontaneously thru ugh play. The teacher should therefore apply approaches that are child centred, motivating and sustain interest. Children learn best through participatory activities and manipulation of play materials.

The teachers/caregivers role is to provide relevant, adequate, safe and age appropriate play materials as well as a conducive learning environment that will enhance heuristic learning. Through play and use of their senses, children discover new knowledge and expand their ideas as they explore and experiment with resources 'n their environment. This enhances holistic development.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Learning Learning is acquisition of concepts, skills and attitudes that bring about a permanent change in observable behaviour. Heuristic Learning This is a method of learning that allows children to independently acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes as they interact with the environment. Method: The word method refers to orderliness of thought and action. It is the techniques or arrangement of work for a particular field or subject.

The term ‘method’, ‘technique’ and strategy are often used by teachers to mean ways of teaching. These words refer to different but related activities in the course of teaching.

In ECD it is recommended that methods that are child-centred and participatory be used. Thematic and integrated learning approach is one of such methods that has proven to be effective in facilitation of learning in ECD. Theme A theme is a central idea or topic around which learning takes place or is derived from. Integration

The act of combining or adding parts to make a unified whole. In ECD integration refers to where a teacher brings in various activity areas into one. For example in Theme ‘ and Family' children can name some family members (language), sing song about family members (mathematics), draw family members (creative art), sing a song about family members (music and movement) in one activity area.

Thematic Learning Method This is a method where learning takes place based on a theme. The theme should cut across all the ECD activity areas. For example, sub-theme myself the child could name parts of the body (language), count parts of the body (mathematics), sing songs about parts of the body (music and movement) model parts of the body (creative)

A theme can be broken into several sub-themes which may run for a period of two or more weeks. For example, in the theme Family, we have family members, food eaten by family members and clothes worn by family members as sub-themes. Child Centred Approach Child centred approach refers to learning based on the interest of the child while the teacher/caregiver acts as a facilitator. Participatory Approach In participatory approach, the child is encouraged to take oar. individually or in a group to explore, manipulate materials in the environment to enhance learning. RECORDS

For proper and effective management of an ECD programme, keeping of administration, professional. curriculum and financial records is very important. These records help the teacher in monitoring the child’s holistic development as well as identifying his/her needs, interests and problems. The records include: (a) Administrative Records: Admission register Attendance register Financial records -Cashbook -Receipt book -Fees register -Ledger books School committee minutes books -Visitors book -Log book -Store ledgers -Consumables -Permanent -Expendable (b) Professional Records -Schemes of work -Lesson plans -Record of work -Timetable -IBP (Individual Programme) -Progress record - record -Socio-emotional development record

Past Exam Papers for KCPE and KCSE

We have an enourmous data quiz bank of past papers ranging from 1995 - 2014 . 

Quick Revision Booklets

Candidates who would want their papers remarked should request for the same within a month after release of the results. Those who will miss out on their results are advised to check with their respective school heads and not with the examination council. . 

Candidate benefit from our quick revision booklets which are comprehensive and how to tackle examination question methods. 

e-Content Digital Multimedia

As a supplementary to coursework content our e-library for digitized multimedia CDs while enhance and ensure that you never missed that important concept during the normal class lessons. It is a Do it Yourself Project

Other Goodies for KCSE ONLINE Members!

Buy 1 Coursework DVD Disc and get a FREE Gold membership plan for two consecutive years. This e-Content Digital CD covers all the topics for a particular class per year. One CDs costs 1200/- ( Per Subject per Class ).

Purchase Online and have the CD sent to your nearest Parcel Service. Pay the amount to Patrick 0721806317 by M-PESA then provide your address for delivery of the Parcel. Ask for clarification if in doubt.

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