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The KCPE - English paper is divided into three parts Namely:

(i) Cloze (broken passage)(ii) Grammar (iii) Comprehension


This is a section where a candidate is required to analyze the passage and select the appropriate word that fits in the dash (broken space)

The word selected can be a conjunction, an article (definite and indefinite), a verb, modal verb, preposition, a phrasal verb, a relative pronoun, an adjective, a noun, a punctuation sign etc. A candidate therefore, is required to analyze and not only put/fix the right word but also think and place it (in case it's a verb) in the agreeable tense. The following are examples of words (and their usage) commonly tested in the cloze (broken passage)


These are normally used before a noun. There are two articles; definite and indefinite. Indefinite Articles:- Indefinite article (a / an) is used to introduce new nouns/subjects in a sentence.- Used when the noun is mentioned for the first time. - used with singular countable nouns e.g. monkey, an elephant. Definite Articles: - Definite article (the) is used to refer to a noun which has already been mentioned / introduced e.g. A dog was run over by a vehicle. The dog was running after a ball when it was knocked by the vehicle. Indefinite article (a) is used with nouns whose first sound is a consonant e.g. a cow, a car etc. Indefinite article (an) is used with nouns whose first sounds is a vowel.


Although is used with a subject + verb e.g. although it was hot, we enjoyed ourselves. I didn't pass my exams although I revised very hard.


It is also used in the same way as although e.g. I didn't pass my exams though I had revised very hard. Though can also be used at the end of a sentence e.g. The suit isn't very nice, I like the tie though.


This is the same as Inspite of it is used with a noun or a pronoun with this/that/what or 'ing' e.g inspite of the heat, we enjoyed our holiday. I didn't pass my exams inspite of studying hard. She wasn't well but inspite of this she went to play. Inspite of what I said yesterday, I still love you. 1


Even though is a stronger form of although e.g. even though I was very hungry I couldn't eat. MODAL VERBS

These are words like can/could, will/would, may/might, must, cant, ought to, needn't, won't, shall/should. CAN / COULD: used for actions e.g. I can go out today ( there is nothing to stop me) I can't go out today I could go out today (but I am not very keen) I couldn't go out yesterday ( I wasn't able) CAN / MAY

Can I go out today ( do you allow me to go out) May I go out today ( do you allow me to go out)


I think I will go out today I promise I won't go out today I would go out today but I have too much to do I promised I wouldn't go out that day


Shall I go out today (do you think It is a good idea')


I should go out today. (It would be a good thing to do) I ought to go out today (It would be a good thing to do)


I must go out today ( it is necessary) I mustn't go out today ( It is necessary that I do not go out) I needn't go out today ( It is not necessary that I go out)


I could have gone out yesterday but I decided to stay home I would have gone out yesterday but I had too much work to do I should have gone out yesterday. I am sorry I didn't I ought to have gone out yesterday but I am sorry I didn't I needn't have gone out yesterday (1 went out but it was necessary)


This are used to say whether something is probable, possible, impossible or certain. Will / Would - What time will she be here' She will be here soon - She would be here now but she has been delayed

Should / Ought to - She should be here soon ( I expect she will be here soon)- She ought to be here soon ( I expect she will be here soon) May / Might/Could - She may be here now. I am not sure ( It is possible that she is here)- She might be here now. I am not sure ( It is possible that she is here)- She could be here now. I am not sure ( It is possible that she is here

Must / Can't - She must be here. I saw her come in. (1 am sure- there is no other possibility)- She can't possibly be here. I know for certain that she is in Mombasa

Would / Should have - She will have arrived by now - She would have arrived earlier but she was delayed - I wonder where she is. She should have arrived by now.- I wonder where she is. She ought to have arrived by now

May/Might/Could - She may have arrived. I am not sure. ( It is possible that she has arrived)- She might have arrived. I am not sure ( It is possible that she has arrived)- She could have arrived. I am not sure ( It is possible that she has arrived) Must / Can't - She must have arrived by now. (I am sure there is no other possibility)- She can't possibly have arrived yet. It is much too early ( It is impossible)


Are similar in meaning e.g.- Each time I see you, you look different - Every time I see you, you look different EACH is used when we think of things separately one by one. We use EVERY when we think of things as a group of every sentence must have a noun e.g. study each sentence carefully .

EACH is more usual for a small number e.g. there were four apples on the table; each apple was of different size. EVERY is more usual for a large number e.g. I would like to visit every town in Kenya. EACH can be used for two things e.g. In a boxing ring, each boxer has to wear different colour of shorts.

We use EVERY to say how often something happens e.g. How often do you brush your teeth' Everyday (not each day) We can use EACH in the middle or at the end of a sentence e.g - The dogs were each given a bone.- These mangoes cost fifteen shillings each.


EVERYONE is only for people. It is the same as everybody.- EVERY ONE (two words) is used for things or people, it means each one e.g.- Everyone enjoyed the cake (Everyone here is the same as everybody)- He has lots of phones and every one has a different sim card


These are singular words therefore we use a singular verb e.g.-Every seat in the church was occupied -Everybody has arrived (not have arrived) We often use they/them/their after everybody/ everyone e.g.-Everybody said they enjoyed themselves -Everyone collected their shares


Will is used when someone has decided to do something at the time of speaking. We use WILL in the following situations - Offering to do something,- Agreeing to do something - Promising to do something - Asking somebody to do something


That casket looks heavy I will help you with it


I will give you the keys when you come this afternoon


I will pay you back on Friday I will not tell anyone what happened


Will you please be quiet? I am trying to focus on my work. Will you shut the door please? Generally we use WILL to talk about the future, but sometimes we use WILL to talk about now e.g. don't call Julie now she will be busy ( I know she will be busy now)


Shall is used mostly in questions e.g. Shall I ? Shall we? We use Shall I ? Shall we ? To ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers and suggestions) e.g. Shall I close the door ( Do you want me to close the door) I feel nauseous what shall I do? ( what do you suggest) Normally we use SHALL only with I and We SHALL is not used with He/She/It/You/They


We use WHEN for things which are sure to happen e.g. I am going shopping this afternoon. When I go shopping I will buy some food. We use IF for things that will possibly happen e.g. I might go fishing this afternoon.(It is possible) If I go fishing I will catch some fish If it rains this evening, I won't go out If they don't come soon I am not going to wait


WHILE is used to state a length of time e.g. I held the bat for a while and swung a heavy blow To show contrast between two things e.g. He ate fish while his friends ate meat. To mean during e.g. The chief was speaking while the women were preparing food. WHEREAS Is used to compare two things with a difference e.g. Sandra is tall whereas her sister Loidah is short


WE use AS only if two things happen at the same time e.g. As I walked into the room, the phone started ring (at the same time) We use WHEN if one thing happens after another e.g. when I got home, I had a bath We use WHILE plus a subject plus a verb e.g. I fell a sleep while I was watching television. While you were out, there was a phone call for you. Caesar read a book while I watched television.


A preposition is a word which shows the relationship between a noun, a pronoun, and another word in a sentence, examples of prepositions are:- In into on For from between Under at before After to till Until upon up Above across

by Behind with through Below beneath Beside A check for A demand for A need for A reason for Advantage of A course of A photograph of A picture of a relationship with a connection with contact with connection between differences between A drawing of An increase in A decrease in A map of A plan of Damage to Invitation to A solution to An answer to A key to A reply to A reaction to An attitude to/towards Good to somebody Polite to somebody Cruel to somebody A rise in A fall in

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