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Excretion and Homeostasis

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood sugar levels have to be maintained within a narrow range of 90-100mg/100cm3 of blood. Fluctuations occur due to large supply of sugar or increased utilization of blood sugar. Blood sugar regulation is carried out through two hormones, insulin and glucagon, produced by the pancreas. They are produced by special cells of areas of the pancreas known as Islets of Langerhans.

Raised levels of blood glucose above normal triggers the release of insulin hormone from the pancreas. The hormone stimulates liver cells to convert sugar to glycogen, sugar to carbon iv oxide and water, or sugar to fat, making the glucose levels to fall back to normal.

On the other hand too little blood glucose below normal triggers release of glucagon from the pancreas causing the liver cells to convert glycogen to sugar thus raising the blood sugar to normal.

Diabetes mellitus

When the pancreas fails to produce insulin or produces insufficient amount of insulin a condition known as diabetes mellitus arises. It is characterized by high levels of blood sugar that cannot be utilized by the cells hence eliminated by the kidney in urine. This is accompanied by frequent passing of urine, loss of water, feeling thirst resulting to large intake of water. Other symptoms include chronic starvation, and loss of body weight due to break down of fats and proteins.
This condition is controlled by intravenous injection of insulin and avoiding intake of alcohol. Diet should be controlled as advised by a doctor.

Role of the Kidney in Homeostasis

The kidney plays a major role in water and salt balance in the body. This process is called osmoregulation.

Osmoregulation

When the osmotic pressure of the blood is higher than normal the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detects this and sends impulse to the pituitary gland which releases ADH into the blood. On reaching the kidney it increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to water causing more water to be reabsorbed. This lowers the osmotic pressure of the blood to normal hence little and concentrated urine is produced. When the osmotic pressure of the blood is lower than normal the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus does not send impulses to the pituitary gland which in turn does not stimulate the release of the ADH into the blood. Less water is reabsorbed raising the osmotic pressure in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts resulting to release of a lot of dilute urine.

Regulation of ion content

Ions e.g. Phosphate, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium and Sodium must be regulated within narrow ranges of their optimum concentration for efficient functioning of the body processes. For instance, levels of sodium ions in the body are regulated by hormone known as aldosterone produced by the adrenal glands. When concentration of sodium ions is low in the blood the adrenal glands are stimulated to release aldosterone into the blood. On reaching the loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule of the kidney it makes them permeable and stimulates the active reabsorption of sodium ions from the glomerular filtrateinto blood. This raises the sodium ions concentration in blood .This leads to homeostatic regulation of sodium ions in blood.

Diabetes insipidus

When pituitary gland is unable to produce anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or produces insufficient amount the kidney tubules are unable to reabsorb water from the glomerular filtrate. This leads to production of a large amount of dilute urine a condition known as diuresis. The patient becomes dehydrated due to passing out a large volume of water in urine. The patient compensates by drinking large volumes of water.

Dialysis

If the kidney becomes sick and can not perform its functions of osmoregulation, dialysis is necessary. In this video a doctor explains the process of dialysis.

TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS

Objectives

By the end of this lesson you should be able to

  • Explain the importance of transport in animals.
  • Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems.
  • Relate the structure of the heart and the blood vessels to their functions
  • Trace the path taken by blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart
  • Name the common diseases of the circulatory system in humans and suggest methods off control/prevention.
  • Relate the structure of the components of blood to their functions.
  • Explain how oxygen and carbon (iv) oxide are transported in blood.
  • Describe the mechanism of blood clotting and its importance.
  • Describe the human blood groups and their importance in blood transfusion.
  • Explain immunity and describe immune responses.

    Background Information We have learnt the meaning of transport and its importance.In the previous sub-topic, we emphasized on transport of water, mineral salts and organic substances in plants. Animals, just like plants, need to transport substances. This takes place through an elaborate transport system known as the circulatory system. Circulatory systems are of two types: open and closed. Open circulatory systems are found in invertebrates such as insects. Closed circulatory systems are found in vertebrates.

    EXCERCISES

    Objectives

    By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  • Distinguish between excretion, secretion, egestion and homeostasis
  • Explain the necessity of excretion in plants and animals
  • State the uses of excretory products of plants
  • Describe the methods of excretion in a named unicellular organism.
  • Relate the structures of the human skin, lungs and liver and kidney to their functions
  • Compare responses to changes in temperature by behavioural and physiological methods in animals.
  • relate heat loss to body size in mammals
  • discuss the role of antidiuretic hormone, insulin and glucagon
  • Describe simple symptoms of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

    Background

    Many metabolic reactions take place in cells of living organisms producing waste products. Most of these are toxic. Thus they should be separated and removed from the bodies. This process is called excretion.

    During the metabolic processes some useful substances are produced by cells and released outside the cells to be used. These include hormones, enzymes, hormones, mucus and sebum. This process is called secretion.

    In the process of digestion of undigested and indigestible materials are removed from the alimentary canal in solid or semi-solid form. This process is called egestion.

    EXCRETION AND HOMEOSTASIS

    In Form One you described excretion as one of the characteristics of living things.You learnt that living organisms produce waste products in the course of metabolism. In this topic you are going to learn about excretory products in plants and animals and how they are separated and eliminated from their bodies.

    Excretion, Secretion and Egestion

    Many metabolic reactions take place in cells of living organisms producing waste products. Most of these are toxic. Thus they should be separated and removed from the bodies. This process is called excretion.

    During the metabolic processes some useful substances are produced by cells and released outside the cells to be used. These include hormones, enzymes, hormones, mucus and sebum. This process is called secretion.

    In the process of digestion of undigested and indigestible materials are removed from the alimentary canal in solid or semi-solid form. This process is called egestion.

    Excretion in plants

    Plants do not have an elaborate excretory system. This is because they accumulate very little toxic wastes. Most of the wastes produced are formed slowly from the breakdown of carbohydrates. The plants also re-use most of these waste products, such as carbon IV oxide, oxygen and water.

     

     

    Some plants store some toxic wastes in nontoxic forms in their tissues and organs which age and drop off. Examples include flowers, leaves, fruits and barks.

     

     

    Leaves dropping

    Methods of excretion in plants

    Plants employthe following methods to remove wastes from their bodies.

    • Diffusion for example oxygen and carbon IV oxide.
    • Transpiration of water vapor. Guttation of water.
    • Exudation for example rubber and gum.
    • Deposition for example papain, caffeine,quinine,tannins coccain,cannabis, khat ,nicotine and colchicine.

     

     

    Important Excretory products of plants

    Gum is produced from Acacia trees. Used in food processing and printing industry.

    Rubber is found in the sap of rubber tree. It is used for Manufacture of tyres and shoes

    Caffeine is produced from coffee berries and tea leaves. It is used as a stimulant. It increases mental activity and heart beat rate.

    Quinine is found in the bark of Cinchona tree. It is used for treatment of malaria

    Tannin is produced from the bark of wattle tree. It is used for tanning leather

     

    Harmful products of plants

    Cocaine is found inthe leaves of coca plant. It is used as a local anesthesia agent. When used as a drug it is hallucinogenic and addictive

    Cannabis is found in the leaves of Cannabis sativa. It is hallucinogenic, causes brain damage and is addictive.

    Khat is found in the bark of green plant called Catha edulis commonly known as Miraa. It is a mild stimulant and addictive.

    Nicotine is found in tobacco. It affects brains and contains carcinogenic or cancer causing substances. Nicotine is addictive.

    Excretion in Unicellular Organisms

    Diffusion in Amoeba

    Amoeba carries out respiration which causes accumulation of carbon dioxide in the organism. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the amoeba through the cell membrane to the surroundings water. Oxygen is used up during respiration. The oxygen concentration is therefore lower in the amoeba. It diffuses from the surrounding water into the amoeba.

     

    Diffusion in Amoeba

     

    Excretion in Mammals

    Mammals have an elaborate excretory system because of the following reasons:

    • They have a small surface area to volume ratio hence diffusion through the body surface is not sufficient for the removal of metabolic wastes.
    • Their metabolic wastes are generally toxic
    • Their rate of metabolism is fast therefore they accumulate a lot of metabolic wastes.

    Excretory Organs in Man

    Human beings have four specialized excretory organs:

    • Skin
    • Lungs
    • Kidney
    • Liver

    Excretion in Mammals

    Mammals have an elaborate excretory system because of the following reasons:

    • They have a small surface area to volume ratio hence diffusion through the body surface is not sufficient for the removal of metabolic water.
    • They do not reutilized most of their metabolic wastes.
    • Their metabolic wastes are generally toxic
    • Their metabolic process are generally fasthence accumulate a lot of waste products

     

     

     

     

     

    Excretory Organs in Man

     

     

    Human beings have four specialized excretory organs:

    Skin

    Lungs

    Kidney

    Liver

    Skin Structure

     

     

    The skin is the largest body organ. It covers the whole surface of the body and even continues into many body openings like nostrils, mouth and ears. The main functions of the skin are:

    • Protection of the underlying tissues from entry of microorganisms, physical damage and ultraviolet rays from the sun.
    • Regulation of body temperature.
    • Excretion of excess water, salts and some urea.
    • Reception of stimulli of heat, cold, pain, touch and pressure.
    • Synthesis of vitamin D.
    • Storage of fat.

     

    The malpighian layer

    It is the innermost of the epidermal layers and is made up of actively dividing cells that give rise to the new epidermis. Its cells have a dark pigment called melanin that gives color to the skin and also gives protection against harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun.

    Granular layer: Is the middle layer of the epidermis. It consists of living cells that have granules. It gives rise to the cornified layer.

     

     

    Cornified layer

    This is the outermost layer. It is made up of flattened dead cells that become filled with a tough flexible substance called keratin. The cornified layer provides protection against mechanical damage and invasiion by bacteria. It also reduces lose of water by evaporation.

    The Dermis

    The dermis is comparatively thicker than the epidermis. Many structures such as blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, nerve endings, lymphatic vessels, sweat glands and hair follicles are found in the dermis.

     

     

    Protection against attack by microorganisms

     

     

    Protection from rays of the sun

     

    Role of the skin in salt and water balance

    Through sweating waste products of metabolism such as water and salts are lost through the sweat .this causes osmotic changes in the body cells and fluids .To restore the balance drinking of large volume of water and intake of mineral salts in the diet.

     

    The Kidney

    The kidney is one of the organs in the body. It carries out the following functions:

    • Removal of metabolic wastes that is excretion
    • Regulate the concentration of blood plasma and tissue fluid that is osmoregulation.
    • Regulation of ions in the body
    • Regulation pH of blood.

    You have learnt that active transport and diffusion are two physiological rocesses by which the body absorbs materials. In this lesson you will learn how the kidney tubules reabsorb materials.

    The illustration shows the structure of the human kidney

    The kidney receives oxygenated blood through the renal artery. This blood is also rich in waste products of metabolism.

    Enlarged section through the kidney showing nephrons

    A branch of the renal artery, the afferent arteriole, carries blood into a capsule of the nephron called the bowman capsule. Here it branches and forms a ball-like structure of cappillaries called glomerulus. These rejoin to form the efferent arteriole that leaves the bowman capsule. The afferent arteriole that gets into the bowman capsule has a wider lumen than the efferent arteriole leaving it. This causes blood pressure to build up in the glomerulus.The high pressure forces the fluid part of the blood and materials of small sizes into the Bowmans capsule. This fluid is called glomerular filtrate. It contains water, urea, glucose, amino acids and salts. Large sized molecules are not filtered. They remain in the blood vessels. These include plasma proteins and blood cells.

    A nephron

    Nephron

    nephron

     

    Selective reabsorption

    The filtererd substances which are useful to the body are selectively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. This process requires energy and occurs in the renal tubules.

    This animation shows how selective reabsorption occurs.

    Nephron function

    The kidney acts as an osmoregulator in two ways: It reabsorbs sodium chloride ions and water from the ultrafiltrate.

    Reabsorption of sodium chloride ions from the ultrafiltrate.

    This process occurs at the loop of henle by active transport. The process is regulated by a hormone called aldosterone. Low concentration of sodium ions in blood stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone hormone. This hormone leads to increased reabsorption of sodium ions into the bloodstream.

     

     

    Reabsorption of water

    This is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin.

    The animation shows the events that occur when the osmotic pressure of blood changes. When the osmotic pressure increases, this change is detected by the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus sends impulses to the pituitary gland causing it to secrete more antidiuretic hormone. The hormone causes the nephrons to become more permeable to reabsorption of water. More water is therefore reabsorbed back into the blood stream, hence lowering the osmotic pressure.

    If the kidney fails an artificial machine called a dialysis machine can be used to clean the body of waste products and excess water. This video features a patient on a dialysis machine.

    Structure and Function of the Liver

    The liver is the second largest organ after the skin. It is both an excretory and homeostatic organ. The liver is made up of many lobules. Each lobule is made up of many liver cells. The liver receives blood from two blood vessels, the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery. Blood drains out of the liver through the hepatic vein.

    Cells of the liver

    Functions of the liver

    Deamination

    Excess amino acids are not stored in the body .They are internally broken down by the liver into urea through a series of enzyme reactions called the Ornithine cycle. During the deamination process the amino group of the amino acid is removed and converted into ammonia. The ammonia is combine with carborn iv oxide by enzymes through a series of reactions to form a less toxics compound called urea.The urea is then carried by blood to the kidney for elimination.

     

     

    Detoxification

    Toxins in the blood stream are broken down in the liver into less toxic products. For example toxic hydrogen peroxide produced in some reactions is broken down into water and oxygen by catalase enzymes in the liver. Many harmful chemicals such as alcohol and barbiturate drugs are also made less toxic to the body by the liver.

     

     

     

    Breakdown of worn out Red Blood Cells.

    Haemoglobin from worn out RBC is also broken down in the liver and the residual pigments such as urochrome is eliminated by the kidney while bilirubin is eliminated via the alimentary canal.
     

    Besides the excretory functions above the liver has other functions such as:

    • Storage of excess sugar in form of glucose, fat soluble vitamins, Mineral salts and blood.
    • Regulation of metabolism
    • Thermoregulation
    • Red blood cell formation
    • Synthesis of plasma proteins e.g. fibrinogen
    • Blood glucose regulation

     

     

     

    Blood glucose regulation

    Homeostasis

    This refers to the maintenance of a steady state of the body internal environment. The internal environment is the immediate surrounding of the body cell. The cell is surrounded by the interstitial fluid or tissue fluid. The factors in the tissue fluid that tends to fluctuate include:

    • Glucose concentration
    • pH
    • temperature
    • Carbon IV oxide and Oxygen concentration
    • Ions

    Principle of Homeostasis

    Negative feed back mechanism


     

    Homeostasis works on a negative feedback mechanism. The negative feedback involves detecting a deviation from normal body condition and subsequent correction of the deviation to normal condition. Positive feedback occurs when the corrective mechanism fails resulting to a further deviation from the normal.

    Organs involved in homeostasis

    • The skin
    • Liver
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys

    All the above work in conjunction with the neuro-endocrine system.

    Portions of the brain such as the hypothalamus are central to homeostasis. It has cells which can detect changes in the internal temperature , blood sugar concentration, and ion concentration as blood flows through the brain .It the triggers the appropriate corrective mechanism.

    Role of the Hypothalamus

    The hypothalamus is a small region between the cerebrum and the cerebellum part of the brain. It contains thermoreceptors which detect changes in the temperature of the blood passing through it. Thermoreceptors in the skin also relay impulses to the hypothalamus through sensory nerves.

    The hypothalamus also controls osmoregulation and blood sugar level.

    Behavioral Mechanism of controlling body temperature

    Behavioural mechanisms include coiling, burrowing, migrating, funnings, hibernation and aestivation. Some of these mechanisms are demonstrated in the videos shown.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Body size and heat loss

    Body size is inversely proportional to heat loss. The larger the animal the less heat lost from the body and vice versa i.e. larger animals retain more heat in their bodies than small ones. A large organism such as an adult elephant has a small surface area to volume ratio. It therefore losses less heat through the skin to its environment. Small sized organisms such as a rat, has a large surface area to volume ratio compared the elephant. It therefore losses more heat to the environment through the skin.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Thermoregulation

    Thermoregulation is the maintenance of a constant body temperature of about 36.9 Degrees Celcius. This is necessary for proper functioning of enzymes. As far as thermoregulation is concerned, animals are divided into two groups:

    1. Homeoitherms: These maintain a constant body temperature irrespective of fluctuations in environmental temperature.
    2. Poikilotherms: In these organisms their body temperature conforms to the environmental temperature.

    Role of the Skin in Thermoregulation

    Temperature regulation through the skin can occur through heat loss or heat gain.The skin can gain or lose heat through conduction, radiation convection and evaporation. Poikilothermic organisms such as lizards bask in the sun in the morning when it is cold to absorb heat through their skin and raise their body temperature. In the afternoon when it is too hot they move to hide under the shade.

    The following are ways organisms lose or gain heat by physiological means:

    • The skin loses heat during vasodilatation when the body temperature lowers to the skin blood vessels constrict reducing the blood flow to the skin and encourages heat loss
    • When the body temperature is below normal the erector pili muscles contract making the hairs on the skin surface to stand erect on the body surface. This traps a layer air which is a poor conductor of heat. Heat loss is prevented.

    It is worth noting that animals inhabiting cold regions have developed a thick layer of subcutaneous fat to insulate their body against heat loss

    • Animals inhabiting the hot deserts have a relatively thin subcutaneous fat to encourage their bodies for heat loss. There are other means of regulating body temperature. These include shivering, an involuntary muscle contraction to generate heat during low temperature. It is initiated by the hypothalamus.
    • At low temperatures the rate of metabolism increases. This produces more heat to warm the body. Blood vessels near the skin surface constrict so that less blood flows near the surface. This reduces loss of heat to the environment.

     

     

    At high temperature the body responds in the following ways:

    • Increased sweating. The sweat moves to the surface of the skin where it uses body heat to evaporate. This is the latent heat of vaporisation. The body losses heat and cools down. Organisms without sweat glands such as dogs pant and lose heat when saliva evaporates from their tongue.
    • Erector muscles relax causing hair to slant.
    • Blood vessels near the skin surface dilate (Vasodilatation). This brings more blood close to the surface where more body heat is lost to the environment.

    This animation shows the homeostatic control of body temperature through the skin in a mammal.

     

     

    Role of the Kidney in Homeostasis

    The kidney plays a major role in water and salt balance in the body. This process is called osmoregulation.

    Osmoregulation

    When the osmotic pressure of the blood is higher than normal the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detects this and sends impulse to the pituitary gland which releases ADH into the blood. On reaching the kidney it increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to water causing more water to be reabsorbed. This lowers the osmotic pressure of the blood to normal hence little and concentrated urine is produced. When the osmotic pressure of the blood is lower than normal the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus does not send impulses to the pituitary gland which in turn does not stimulate the release of the ADH into the blood. Less water is reabsorbed raising the osmotic pressure in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts resulting to release of a lot of dilute urine.

    Regulation of ion content

    Ions e.g. Phosphate, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium and Sodium must be regulated within narrow ranges of their optimum concentration for efficient functioning of the body processes. For instance, levels of sodium ions in the body are regulated by hormone known as aldosterone produced by the adrenal glands. When concentration of sodium ions is low in the blood the adrenal glands are stimulated to release aldosterone into the blood. On reaching the loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule of the kidney it makes them permeable and stimulates the active reabsorption of sodium ions from the glomerular filtrateinto blood. This raises the sodium ions concentration in blood .This leads to homeostatic regulation of sodium ions in blood.

     

     

     

     

    If the kidney becomes sick and can not perform its functions of osmoregulation, dialysis is necessary. In this video a doctor explains the process of dialysis

    Diabetes insipidus

    When pituitary gland is unable to produce anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or produces insufficient amount the kidney tubules are unable to reabsorb water from the glomerular filtrate. This leads to production of a large amount of dilute urine a condition known as diuresis. The patient becomes dehydrated due to passing out a large volume of water in urine. The patient compensates by drinking large volumes of water.

    Blood Sugar Regulation

    Blood sugar levels have to be maintained within a narrow range of 90-100mg/100cm3 of blood. Fluctuations occur due to large supply of sugar or increased utilization of blood sugar. Blood sugar regulation is carried out through two hormones, insulin and glucagon, produced by the pancreas. They are produced by special cells of areas of the pancreas known as Islets of Langerhans.

    Raised levels of blood glucose above normal triggers the release of insulin hormone from the pancreas. The hormone stimulates liver cells to convert sugar to glycogen, sugar to carbon iv oxide and water, or sugar to fat, making the glucose levels to fall back to normal.

    On the other hand too little blood glucose below normal triggers release of glucagon from the pancreas causing the liver cells to convert glycogen to sugar thus raising the blood sugar to normal.

    Diabetes mellitus

    When the pancreas fails to produce insulin or produces insufficient amount of insulin a condition known as diabetes mellitus arises. It is characterized by high levels of blood sugar that cannot be utilized by the cells hence eliminated by the kidney in urine. This is accompanied by frequent passing of urine, loss of water, feeling thirst resulting to large intake of water. Other symptoms include chronic starvation, and loss of body weight due to break down of fats and proteins.
    This condition is controlled by intravenous injection of insulin and avoiding intake of alcohol. Diet should be controlled as advised by a doctor.

     

    This is the end of our Form Two lessons. Test yourself using the excercises and quizzes provided at the start of each topic of the lessons.

    THE END

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