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Livestock rearing practices

Livestock Production IV (livestock rearing practices) In the management of livestock there are many activities that are carried out on animals to enhance production. These activities are referred to as livestock rearing practices.
Some of the livestock rearing practices done routinely include:

Suggested Topic Activities

1. Construct a Kenya Top Bar Hive after which you place it in a good site in school or at home, away from disturbance.(You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 59&61-63 KLB)Smear some wax or honey in it to encourage the bees to colonise the hive. 2. Assist in debeaking of poultry in the school or in the neighbourhood or at home (You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 45 KLB) 3. Identify any farm animal that is about to give birth with the help of a farm manager or the teacher. (You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 53-56 KLB ) 4. Visit the school farm or nearby farmers and help to carry out feeding (You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 27-31 KLB)

Suggested Topic Activities

1. Construct a Kenya Top Bar Hive after which you place it in a good site in school or at home, away from disturbance.(You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 59&61-63 KLB)Smear some wax or honey in it to encourage the bees to colonise the hive. 2. Assist in debeaking of poultry in the school or in the neighbourhood or at home (You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 45 KLB) 3. Identify any farm animal that is about to give birth with the help of a farm manager or the teacher. (You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 53-56 KLB ) 4. Visit the school farm or nearby farmers and help to carry out feeding (You can find referece in Secondary Agrculture Book 3 page 27-31 KLB)

Background information

In your previous studies you covered common livestock breeds kept in Kenya, livestock health, livestock nutrition, selection and breeding.
The importance of keeping livestock healthy is that:

  • They grow faster reaching maturity early.
  • They produce highly.
  • They give high quality produce.
  • They have a long productive life.
  • They give rise to strong and healthy offsprings
     

Livestock Rearing Practices Glossary

Absconding- sudden departure of bees from the hive due to unfavourable conditions. Apiary - a place where beehives are laid. Blowfly-a fly that lays its eggs on the wounds of animals. Brood-larvae and pupa of bees. Creep feeding -feeding of young ones before weaning. Crutching- the shearing of wool around the external reproductive organs of a female sheep. Docile-easy to control. Docking- the removal or cutting off of the tail or dock especially in sheep. Flushing- Flushing is the practice of giving extra quality feed to an animal around service time. Honey sac-sac on the bees used to store honey. Indelible ink -ink that cannot be rubbed out or removed. Kid-young one of goats. Muslin cloth-a thin plain-weave cotton cloth. Raddling- the practice of fitting the rams with breeding chutes that are painted in different colours during mating. Steaming-up -the practice of providing extra feed of high nutritive value to an animal during the last weeks of gestation. Swarm - a colony bees or part of it that is in flight. Tupping-mating in sheep.

Livestock Rearing Practices

Topic objectives

By the end of the topic, you should be able to

;

  • describe livestock rearing practices
  • describe keeping of bees and fish
  • carry out livestock rearing practices
  • Describe appropriate handling techniques of livestock during routine management.


 

 

Livestock Production IV (livestock rearing practices)


 

In the management of livestock there are many activities that are carried out on animals to enhance production. These activities are referred to as livestock rearing practices.
Some of the livestock rearing practices done routinely include:

 

Feeding Practices

Feeding livestock is a common management practice in livestock farming.

Feeding practice aims to demonstrate the good routine practices in feeding livestock with a balanced diet for productivity.

Flushing

Farmers need to offer to the right stock, the right type of feeds, in the right amounts, and at the right period. -There are special types of feeding carried out on certain animals to cater for their specific needs during flushing.

Flushing

is the practice of giving extra quality feed to an animal around service time.

 

 

Imporatnce of flushing

The amount of feeds given to an animal during service time is increased both in quality and quantity. The time period when flushing is done differ from one animal to the other. For example, in sheep it is done 2-3 weeks before tupping and 3 weeks after tupping while in pigs it is done 3-4 weeks before service. a. Increase chances of conception b. Enhances implantation of the embryo in the uterus c. Increases twinning percentage in sheep

Creep feeding piglets

Creep feeding is feeding of young ones from birth to weaning. The feed given to the young ones is called creep feed. A good creep feed should be highly nutritious, digestible and palatable.

Feeding in piglets

Piglets are the young ones of pigs. They should be introduced to solid, palatable food from the 10 tenth day. Piglets should be provided with sufficient amounts of creep pellets in a clean trough. The amount of creep pellets should be raised to about 0.9 kg per piglet per day at weaning.

Steaming-up

Steaming-up is the practice of providing extra feed of high nutritive value to animals during the last weeks of gestation. The time period when steaming-up is done varies from one type of animal to another.

  • Cow- steamed-up 6-8 weeks prior to calving
  • Ewe- steamed-up 3-4 weeks prior to lambing
  • Nanny- steamed-up 3-4 weeks prior to kidding
  • Doe- steamed-up 2weeks prior to kindding
  • Sow- steamed-up 6 weeks prior to furrowing.

Importance of steaming up

The high quality ration given to the animal supplies nutrients above the maintenance requirements of the animal to give it good conditions for parturition.
Steaming-up is important to animals because:
i. It provides nutrients for maximum foetal growth
ii. It helps build up energy for parturition
iii. It ensures birth of a healthy animal
iv. It promotes good health of the mother
v. It increases and maintains high milk yield after birth

Click the play button to see the video on steaming-up

Parasite and Disease Control Practices

Parasites and diseases control is very important in livestock rearing.One of the methods used in their control is vaccination. A vaccine is a preparation of dead or attenuated disease causing organism introduced into animal's body to induce immunity.There are four groups of vaccines. These are:
1. Live virulent vaccines
2. Live attenuated vaccine
3. Killed or dead vaccines
4. Toxoids

Vaccination in poultry

Vaccines can be given in the following ways: 1) By injections
2) Orally, through the mouth
3) Inhalation, through the nose
4) Through the cloaca
 

Deworming

Click the play button to see the video

Deworming is the practice of killing and removing internal parasites by administering drugs to animals called antihelmitics. The deworming drugs can be administered by:-
a. using dosing gun,
b. using bolus gun
c. using narrow necked bottle.

Some of the parasites that are controlled through deworming include round worms, tapeworms, hookworms, and liver flukes.

Deworming should be done routinely in cattle.
 

Ag3-0220004Movie-deworming of a cow


Steps-cow is restrained in a crush
-correct amount of drug is put in a drenching gun or narrow necked bottle.
-mouth of cow is opened wide and drenching gun place at the corner of mouth and ensure animal swallows the drug.
- withdraw gun from mouth and hold mouth closed for a few seconds.
 

Ag3-0220004Moviemvo -

Some of the parasites that are controlled through deworming include round worms, tapeworms, hookworms, and liver flukes

Hoof Trimming

Hoof trimming is the practice of cutting off overgrown hooves of farm animals. One may use hoof trimming knife, hoof cutter or a hoof rasp. Hoof trimming is important in livestock because:-
i. it facilitate mating
ii. it enables walking with ease
iii. it reduce incidences of foot rot attack
 

 

 

Docking (tailing) in sheep

Click the play button to see the video

Docking is the removal or cutting off of the tail or dock especially in sheep. Docking is done to reduce blow fly infestation, facilitate mating and for even fat distribution in an animal's body.
-There are several methods that can be employed in docking. These include: 1. Use of rubber ring and elastrator 2. Use of burdizzo and knife 3. Use of sharp knife 4. Use of hot iron The rubber should be placed between vertebrae joints of the tail, leaving about 1 inch from the tail. The tail drops off in 7 -10 days

Breeding Practices

This are practices carried during breeding management. For example Crutching and Raddling in sheep

Crutching in sheep


Crutching is the shearing of wool around the external reproductive organs of a female sheep. Wool shears are used to carry out this practice.
Docking is done for the following reasons:
1. To control blowfly infestation
2. To facilitate mating
3. To keep fleece clean
 

 

Crutching in sheep


cutting of wool around the external reproductive organs of female
Crutching should be done before mating to prepare the ewe for mating
Crutching is done few weeks before mating and before lambing

Raddling in sheep

This is the practice of fitting the rams with breeding chutes which are painted in different colours during mating. The chutes are fitted on the underside around the breast of the ram -Raddling is done for the following reasons:
a) Helps to identify mated ewes and by which rams, b) Helps to identify the active rams hence able to cull the weak ones. c) Helps to identify infertile animals.

Tattooing

Tattooing involves marking shapes, numbers or letters on the skin of an animal with an indelible ink or dye.

 

Branding in Cattle

The marks made should be large enough to be read and understood. Marks should be made on the ears, udder, muzzle or at the back.

Ear tagging in cattle

The ear tags come in different colours and are usually marked with appropriate numbering which are recorded in livestock register.

Poultry management practices

Debeaking

Debeaking is the practice of cutting about 1/3 of the upper beak with a knife, debeaker, scissors or hot iron.
-It is important to debeak poultry for the following reasons:
1. Control egg eating
2. Control cannibalism
3. Chicken are easy to handle
 

Youngstock rearing practices

Click the play button to see the video on calf feeding

Dehorning

Dehorning is the removal of horns in farm animals The methods used for dehorning include:

a. Use of Caustic Potash Stick (potassium hydroxide). b. Use of disbudding iron. c. Use of dehorning saw or wire. d. Use of rubber ring and elastrator e. Use of dehorning collodion.

Disbudding in calves

Disbudding is the process of destroying horn buds. The disbudding iron is heated in fire and then placed on the horn buds.

Destruction of horn buds in a young calf using a red hot disbudding Iron Steps - restrain a young calf -inject the calf around the horn bud to reduce pain -rub the horn bud using a red hot disbudding iron until the base is reached, -the horn bud is scooped out from the sides.

Castration

This is rendering unserviceable the testicles of a male animal. The reasons for castrating farm animals includes: i. To control breeding diseases ii. To control breeding iii. For faster growth rate iv. Increase quality of meat by removing unpleasant smell.

Bee Keeping (Apiculture)

Importance of bees

The science of keeping bees is called apiculture. Honey has become very popular with many people, necessitating the improvement in ways of rearing bees. Bees are kept for the following reasons: 1) For production of honey 2) Production of beeswax 3) Are good agents of pollination in crops 4) Require little capital and land to keep.

 

Bee colony

Bees are insects which live in very well organized colonies. Each colony is made up of a queen, drones and worker bees. The bee colony is made up of:- a) Queen bee-lays eggs b) drones-mates the queen and ventilate the hive c) Worker bees- i. Rear and nurse the broods (egg, larvae and pupae), queen and drones ii. Make the honey combs iii. make honey from nectar iv. Protect the hive v. Clean and cool the hive

Siting of an apiary

A hive is a structure made of wood for purpose of rearing bees. A place where beehives are laid is called an

apiary.

Factors to consider when siting an apiary are: 1) Availability of water 2) Availability of flowers 3) A sheltered place 4) A place which is free from noise and other disturbances 5) A way from human beings and livestock

Types of beehives

There are four types of beehives. These are: 1) Log hive 2) Box hive 3) Kenya top bar hive 4) Langstroth hive

Stocking the hive

Stocking the hive is the act of encouraging bees to enter an empty hive or actually putting them in it. Hives can be stocked through: 1. Use a swarm net 2. Use of a catcher box 3. Placing a hive in a permanent place

Swarming of bees

A swarm of bees is a colony or part of it that is in flight.Bees swarm due to the following reasons: 1) Shortage of food and water in the surroundings 2) Outbreak of parasites and diseases 3) Damage of brood combs 4) Lack of adequate ventilation 5) Dampness and bad smells 6) Sick or infertile queen 7) overcrowding

Honey harvesting

Honey should be harvested when it is fully mature and at the end of the rainy season.

Click the play button to see the video




 

Honey processing

Click the play button to see the video

Honey processing using crushing and straining. Methods of honey processing include: 1. Heat method 2. Crushing and straining 3. using centrifugal extractor.

Bees wax

Wax is secreted by a pair of glands in the abdomen of the worker bees. It is used by worker bees to make combs for raising the young brood and storing of honey. Bee wax can be used in the following ways: 1) To manufacture creams, ointments, candles, shoe and floor polish 2) To make teeth impressions for filling and replacement 3) Dissection of small insects in laboratories 4) To make pill coatings

Fish Farming (Aquaculture)

The artificial rearing of fish is called aquaculture or fish farming. Fish farming is normally carried out in specially prepared structures called fish ponds A good fish pond should have the following features: 1) Should have an inlet, spillway, outlet of water. 2) Should be in land with a gentle slope. 3) Should be fenced. 4) Should in an area which have clayey soil. 5) Should have water that is free from any pollutants.

Establishing a fish pond

Cropping and harvesting of fish

Cropping is the harvesting of marketable size fish from the pond while harvesting is the removal of all fish from the pond. Cropping of fish from a fish pond is done using fish nets.

The advantages of using fish net are that only marketable fish are caught, fish are not injured and large number of fish is cropped within a short time.

Fish preservation

After harvesting fish, they are cleaned to remove mud and slime. The scales are then scrapped off before removing the gut and cleaning the abdominal cavity. Fish are then preserved in either of the following ways a. Freezing b. Salting c. Sun-drying d. Smoking

Identification

Identification is the practice of making marks or putting labels on farm animals. There are several methods that are used in identifying farm animals. These include: a) Branding. b) Ear tagging. c) Ear notching. d) Tattooing. e) Use of neck straps or chains.

.

 



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