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Metalwork Syllabus



At the end of this course, the learner should be able to:
1.     develop skills in the safe use and care of materials used in metalworking processes;
2.     identify various common materials used in metalworking processes;
3.     interpret drawings related to metalwork projects;
4.     recognize various tools and equipment used in metalwork;
5.     perform accurately any given metalwork activity using correct tools and equipment;
6.     make functional articles to suit the design requirements by applying the correct
metalwork skills and techniques.


Kenya as a consumer and producer of industrial goods has realized the need to
incorporate practical subjects within the general educational programmes. Metalwork as
one of the Industrial Education cluster of subjects is intended to give the learner an
opportunity to participate both as a producer and a consumer of industrial goods. This
four-year course will be taught through workshop approach and comprises the study of
selection, safe use and care pf tools and materials. This will give the learner an
opportunity to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes which will enable him/her to
pursue further training and/or enter gainful employment.

2.0.0 SAFETY

2.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     state safety rules to be observed in the workshop;
(b)     demonstrate correct behaviour in the workshop;
(c)     exercise proper personal hygiene in a working environment;
(d)     use hand tools safely when performing various operations;
(e)     exercise proper care when using and handling materials;
(f)     perform simple first aid operations;
(g)     take proper procedure in the event of a fire breakout.

2.2,0     Content
2.2.1     Workshop rules
2,2.2     Personal safety:- Protective clothing; eye protection; and personal hygiene.
2.2.3     Handling of tools and equipment:- Pointed and sharp edged tools;
2.2,4     Faulty tools; and storage of tools.
2.2,5     Materials handling:- Lifting, moving; and storing.
2.2,6     First aid;- Contents of first aid kit; dressing simple cuts and bums.

2.2.7 Fire and fire-fighting:- Classes of fire; types of fire extinguishers; fire-fire- fighting techniques.


3.1.0     Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify given measuring and checking tools;
(b)     state the uses of given measuring and checking tools;
(c)     read accurately measurements from a given tool;
(d)     take measurements of workpiece correctly;
(e)     check the accuracy of straight, and curved surfaces of workpieces;
(f)     check the squareness of a given workspiece;
(g)     state types of fits and their applications;
(h)     differentiate between the main and secondary scales on given tools;
(i)     exercise care and safe storage of tools.

3.2.0     Content
3.2.1     Reading measurements of steel rule.
3.2.2     Taking and measuring linear sizes using a steel rule.
3.2.3     Checking for squareness using and engineer’s try square.
3.2.4     Checking for flatness and straightness using a straight edge.
3.2.5     Checking curved surfaces using radius gauge.
3.2.6     Checking dimensions of a workpiece using:
-     a pair of inside calipers;
-     a pair of outside calipers.
3.2.7     Transferring measurements from workpiece to a rule, and from rule to workpiece,
including use of odd-leg calipers.
3.2.8     Parts, scales and reading of vernier calipers, vernier height gauge and micrometer
screw     gauge
3.2.9     Use of limits and tolerances:
- upper and lower limits;
- types of fits.
3.2.10 Caring for and storing measuring and checking tools.

4.0.0     MARKING OUT

4.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify and use given marking-out tools;
(b)     exercise care for and maintain marking-out tools;
(c)     demonstrate safe use of marking-out tools.

4.2.0     Content
4.2.1     Marking out tools:- Scribers; Sliding- bevel; dot punch and centre punch;
scribing block/surface gauge; surface plate; angle plate; and vee-block.
4.2.2 Marking-out process:
- preparing surfaces for marking-out;
- scribing arcs, curves and straight lines
- making witness marks.
4.2.3     Marking-out on reference (surface plate and angle plate).
4.2.4     Scribing of line(s) parallel to reference surface/edges.
4.2.5     Caring for marking-out tools:- Cleaning; oiling; and storing.
4.2.6     Safety in handling marking-out tools.


5.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify given cutting tools;
(b)     select and use the correct tools for specified operations
(c)     use correct techniques when cutting;
(d)     exercise care when handling tools;
(e)     maintain regularly all the tools and equipment.

5.2.0     Content
5.2.1     Workbench and the vice.
5.2.2     Cutting tools:- Files (shapes, grades and cuts); hacksaw; flat cold chisel;     hollow
punches; hand drill and twist drill; and needle files.
5.2.4     Cutting techniques:- Filing; chopping; shearing; and drilling.
5.2.5     Cutting grooves and keyways using diamond, cross-cut and round nose chisels.
5.2.6     Cutting internal and external threads.
5.2.7     Countersinking, counterboring and spotfacing.
5.2.8     Filing round slots and holes.
5.2.9     Hole punching
5.2.10 Maintenance, care and handling of tools and equipment.
5.2.11     Safety while cutting:-Personal safety and tool safety.


6.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     differentiate between ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and articles;
(b)     state the use of various metals;
(c)     select suitable materials for use in the production of functional metal articles;
(d)     describe briefly the manufacture of ferrous metals;
(e)     state the physical properties of various metals;
(f)     identify common coated sheet metals;
(g)     recognize different forms of supplies of metallic materials;
(h)     plan cutting lists correctly to achieve maximum benefit;
(i)     define various heat treatment processes;
(j)     select an appropriate heat treatment process to be performed on specified workpiece.

6.2.0 Content
6.2.1 (1) Ferrous metals:
6.2.2 Steels and alloys-high carbon steel;
- High speed steel, silver steel, stainless steel;- cast iron.
(2) Non-Ferrous metals:- Aluminium, lead, zinc, and tin.
(3) Engineering materials - alloys.
6.2.2 Uses of plain carbon steel (low, medium and high) and copper alloys (brass, bronze).
6.2.3 Basic characteristics of ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and alloys.
6.2.4 Production of ferrous metals;
6.2.5 Physical properties:- Colour, density; structure; fusibility; conductivity;
and magnetism.

6.2.6 Coated sheets
6.2.7 Mechanical properties:- Ductility; malleability; strength; elasticity
(including elastic limit); plasticity; hardness; brittleness; and toughness.
6.2.8 Sizes and shapes.
6.2.9 Material selection.
6.2.10 Cutting lists and bills of materials.
6.2.11     Structure of steel:- relationship between carbon and iron; effects of heat
on steel.
6.2.12 Definition of:- Hardening; annealing; normalizing; tempering; case-hardening.
6.2.13 Procedures for heat treatment.
6.2.14 Safety during heat treatment processes.


7.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify and use various sheet metalwork tools;
(b)     make simple folds in sheet;
(c)     join sheet metal by soft soldering process;
(d)     layout developments of given articles in sheet metal;
(e)     cut templates on sheet metal;
(f)     perform given operations on sheet metal;
(g)     select suitable edge treatment for a given workpiece;
(h)     make specified joints using correct tools and techniques;
(i)     exercise safety when landing sheet metal tools and equipment;
(j)     exercise care when using sheet metal.

7.2.0 Content
7.2.1     Sheet metalwork tools:- Snips; bench shears; mallets; pencils, and folding bars.
7.2.2 Simple fabrication-Marking out; cutting/material.
7.2.3 Procedure for making bends.
7.2.4 Soft soldering:- tools and materials; procedure.
7.2.5 Pattern development;-layout; cutting and shaping.
7.2.6 Template making.
7.2.7 Sheet metalwork operations:-bending, edge-treatment.
(folded, beaded and deburred edges, wired edge); making seams and
joints (folded and false bead lap, grooved, knocked up, panned down);
hollowing; raising; and sinking.
7.2.7 Pop riveting.
7.2.8 Safety:- Handling and storage.


8.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify various types of rivets;
(b)     list materials from which rivets are made;
(c)     select the tools used for riveting;
(d)     apply the correct procedure when riveting.

8.2.0 Content
8.2.1 Types of rivets:- Round head; countersunk head; flat head; bi-furcated.
8.2.2 Materials:- aluminium, copper and mild steel;
8.2.3 Riveting tools.
8.2.4 Procedure for riveting.


9.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify, select and use given forging tools;
(b)     perform various forging operations;
(c)     exercise safety when dealing with heated metals and forging tools.

9.2.0 Content
9.2.1     Forging tools and equipment.
9.2.2 Forging processes: Twisting; drawing down;
Upsetting; cutting, fullering/flatting; bending; punching; and scrolling;
9.2.3 Safety in forgework.

10.0.0 BRAZING

10.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     define the term brazing as a process ofjoining metals;
(b)     identify and use oxy-acetylene welding tools and equipment;
(c)     braze mild steel using oxy-acetylene equipment;
(d)     check the quality of a brazed joint;
(e)     observe safety precautions when brazing.

10.2.0 Content
10.2.1 Definition of brazing.
10.2.2 Tools and equipment:
-oxy-acetylene equipment;
-fluxes - composition, functions and application;
-wire brush, water trough and spark lighter.
10.2.3 Techniques of brazing mild steel:
-surface preparation;
-temperature ranges and heat control;
-flame adjustment;
-application of filler metal (spelter);
-flux removal.

10.2.4 Quality of the joint by visual examination:

-joint preparation;
-wetting and capillarity;
-application of filler metal;
-brazing joints in the down hand (flat) position.
10.2.5 Safety in brazing.


11.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     define the term welding as a process ofjoining metals;
(b)     weld mild steel joints using oxy-acetylene equipments;
(c)     check the quality of a welded joint;
(d)     observe safety precautions when welding.

11.2.0 Content
11.2.1     Definition of welding.
11.2.2 Techniques of welding mild steel:
-surface preparation-leftward and rightward welding;
-temperature ranges and heat;
-types of flames and flame adjustments;
-application of filler metal.
11.2.3 Quality of joints by visual examination;

-joint preparation;
-complete fusion;
-straightness of the weld;
-weld defects.
II.2.4 Safety in welding.

12.0.0     FINISHING

12.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to;
(a)     identify metalwork finishing tools and equipment;
(b)     use correctly the various metalwork finishing tools, materials and equipment;
(c)     select appropriate finishing material for a given period;
(d)     perform correctly the appropriate finishing process on a given project;
(e)     exercise care when handling and storing finishing materials, projects, tools and equipment.

12.2.0 Content
12.2.1     Finishing tools and equipment;
-tools;- files and painting brushes;
-equipment:- source of heat, oil, and holding device.
12.2.2 Finishing materials;- emery cloth; paints; lacquers; solvents; oil; and greases.
12.2.3 Processes and reasons for finishing;- draw filing; polishing; bluing; oil blacking;
brush painting; lacquering; planishing; and dip-painting.
12.2.4 Safety and care:- finishing materials, tools and equipment; processes; storage.


13.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)     identify and use various drawing instruments and papers;
(b)     lay-out border lines and a title block on a drawing sheet;
(c)     select suitable sizes of letters and numerals for specified situations;
(d)     identify correct types of lines when making drawings of articles (projects);
(e)     construct accurately arcs, curves, circles and triangles;
(f)     construct regular polygons accurately;
(g)     read and use specified scales to draw given components.
(h)     use free hand sketching as a method of communication;
(i)     use the correct method when dimensioning;
(j)     make specified pictorial drawings;
(k)     draw surface developments of given articles;
(1)     make accurate working drawings using appropriate instruments;
(m) draw sections of any given component accurately;
(n)     exercise care when handling and storing drawing equipment and materials.

13.2.0     Content
13.2.1     Use of drawing instruments.
13.2.2     Sizes of drawing papers.
13.2.3     Layout of drawing papers:- border lines; and title blocks.
13.2.4     Lettering and conventions.
13.2.5 Types of lines used on drawings,
13.2.6 Geometrical constructions:- straight lines; arcs, curves and circles; triangles;
tangents; and angles.
13.2.7 Construction of regular polygons:- hexagon; octagon; pentagon.
13.2.8 Types of scales: full size; half-fiill size, twice-full size (double size).
13.2.9 Types of scales:- isometric; oblique; orthographic; first angle projection; and
third angle projection.
13.2.10 Dimensions of drawings:- diameter, radii; arcs; and angles.
13.2.11     Pictorial drawings:- isometric projection; cabinet oblique projection.
13.2.12 Working drawings: first angle orthographic projection, third angle
orthographic projection.
13.2.13 Surface development of:- cubes; prisms; cylinders; cones; and pyramids.
13.2.14 Sectioning.
13,2.15 Care and storage of drawing equipment and materials.


14.1.0 Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
(a)  list various metalworking industries in Kenya;
(b)  define various metalworking industries in Kenya;
(c)  compare the entry requirements for various occupations
(d)  relate the knowledge and skills achieved in the course with metalworking occupations;
(e)  differentiate between private and public sector;
(f)   list some institutions under private and public sectors;
(g)  write brief reports on field trips;
(h)  plan a small-scale business in metalwork;
(i)   identify available opportunities for further training from given career information booklets.

14.2.0     Content
14.2.1     Metalworking industries:- manufacturing industries and service industries.
14.2.2     Definitions and entry requirements of apprentice.
14.2.3     Private and public sectors.
14.2.4     Post-school training institutions.
14.2.5     Field trips including those on urban-based metalworking industries.
14.2.6     Setting up a small-scale business:
14.2.7     Type of business,

-advantages and constraints,
-Information retrieval.



This equipment list is based on a maximum class size of 20 learners

Specification     Number required

  1.      Workshop with office and tool store     1
  2.      Workbench     5
  3.      Machinist’s vices     20
  4.      Files:

(a) hand file     20
(b) flat file     20
(c) half-round file     5
(d) triangular file     5
(e) round file     5
(f) square file     5
(g) needle files     (sets) 3
(h) mill files     (sets) 3
5.   Handhacksaws     20
6.     Cold chisels:
(a) flat     5
(b) diamond     1
(c) cross-cut     1
(d) round nose     1
7.     Dot punch     1Q
8.     Centre punch     10
9.     Engineer’s try-square     20
10.     Engineer’s ball pein hammer     10
11.     Engineer’s cross pein hammer     2
12.     Steel rule     20
13.     Steel tape-measure     2
14.     Sheet metalwork square (builder’     1
15.     Calipers:
(a) inside calipers (spring type or plain)     10
(b) outside calipers (spring type or plain)     10
(c) odd-leg calipers (spring type or plain)     10
(d) venier calipers     10
16.     Spring dividers     10
17.     Trammel points and beam     1
18.     Anvil     1
19.     Forge tongs     (set) 1
20.     Heavy duty hummer     2
21.     Hot set     1
22.     Cold set     

23.     Forge (hand-operated)     1
24.     Surface plate     1
25.     Scribing block/surface gauge     1
26.     Angle plate     1
27.     Countersink bits     5
28.     Vee-block and clamp     (pair) :
29.     Timan’s snips:
(a) straight     5 �
(b) curved snips     5
(c) universal snips     5
30.     Compound lever aviation snips:
(a) straight cut     1
(b) right cut     1
(c) left cut     1
31.     Punches:
(a) hand lever punch     1
(b) hallow punch     (set) 1
(c) solid punch     (set) 1
32.     Set of twist drills (assorted) (set) 1
33.     Hand drills     5
34.     Mallets:
(a) timan’s     5
(b) plastic     5
(c) raw-hide     5
(d) bossing mallet (block hammer)     5
35.     Planishing hammers     5
36.     Screw drivers     (set) 1
37.     Spanners-socket and open-end     (set) 1
38.     Adjustable spanners     1
39.     Pliers:
(a) round nose pliers     1
(b) combination pliers     1
(c) square mouth     1
(d) round-nose, curved     1
40.     Mole grip wrench     1
41.     Hand seamer     10
42.     Hand groover set     5
43.     Bick iron     1
44.     Extinguisher stake     1
45.     Funnel stake     1
46.     Creasing iron     1
47.     Tucking hammer     5
48.     Planishing stakes     1
49.     Rivet sets and snaps     5
50.     Pop riveting gun     1
51.     Straight soldering irons (hand type)     5
52.     Hatcher soldering iron     5
53.     Soldering stoves     2
54.     Wire brushes     5
55.     File cards     20
56.     Scrapers;

(a) flat     1
(b) curved     1
(c) triangular     1

57.     Radius gauge     2
58.     Drill sharpening gauge     1
59.     Sliding - bevel     2
60.     Bevel protractor     1
61.     Taps (assorted) (sets) 2
62.     Tap wrenches     5
63.     Dies (assorted) (sets) 2
64.     Die stock     5
65.     Screw-pitch gauge     1
66.     Oil stones     2
67.     Oil cans     2
68.     First aid kit     1
69.     Pair of goggles     5
70.     Pair of gloves     2
7J.     Leather apron     2
72.     Hand vice     2
73.     Tool maker’s clamp     5
74.     Manual grinder     1
75.     Drawing boards     20
76.     Tee-squares (plastic blades)     20
77.     Set squares (plastic blades) - each kind     20
78.     Rulers (plastic)     20
79.     Clips (drawing board)     40
80.     Bench shears     1
81.     Soft erasers     20
82.     Compasses     20
83.     Dividers     20
84.     Protectors     20
85.     Letter stamps     (set) 1
86.     Number stamps     (set) 1
87.     Junior hacksaws     5
88.     Jeweller’s set     1
89,     Water tank (trough)     1


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