KCSE ONLINE DIGITAL

 

 

 

 

Register as a silver or gold member and  get access to KCSE and KCPE  resources for one year. silver account subscription is 300/- while gold account is 1000/- 

 

Click Here to Register

 

Follow KCSE Online

 Standard Eight

 

STANDARD EIGHT

UNIT 1.0: HUMAN BODY

TOPICS 1.1:

i) Reproduction in human beings
ii) Excretory system

1.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain fertilization in human beings
b) discuss the development of the foetus
c) describe the process of birth
d) identify the main excretory organs and their waste products.

1.3 Content

1.3.1 Fertilization
1.3.2 Foetal development

zygote
embryo
foetus

Hint: Include the functions of placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

1.3 .3 Process of birth
1.3.4 Excretory organs and waste products ? skin (epidermis, dermis, sweat glands, waste product - sweat) lungs (nose, trachea, waste product - carbon dioxide)

Hint: Details, of the structure of the lung, alveoli, exchange of gases not required.

Kidney (external appearance of kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra waste product- urine)

Hint: Names of blood vessels not required.

UNIT 2.0: HEALTH EDUCATION

TOPIC 2.1:

i) Sexually transmitted infections
ii) Control of HIV/AIDS

2.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the meaning of sexually transmitted infections
b) name examples of sexually transmitted infections
c) . describe causes and prevention of some sexually transmitted
d) identify control measures for HIV/AIDS.

2.3.1 Content Meaning of sexually transmitted infections (STI's)
2.3.2 STI's, causes and prevention of:

Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Chancroid

Hint: Details of causative organism, signs, symptoms and effects nut required.

2.3.3 Control measures for IUV/AIDS such as:
creating public awareness on HIV7AIDS

campaigns through various media
mass education

UNIT 3.0: PLANTS

TOPICS 3.1:

j) Adaptations of plants
ii) Crop diseases

3.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain how plants are adapted to their environments
b) identify signs of unhealthy crops
c) state effects of crop diseases.

3:3 Content

3.3.1 Adaptations of plants to their environment
dry areas
wet areas

3.3.2 Signs of unhealthy crops
stunted growth
discolouration on growing leaves, ears, stem
curled leaves
wilting
spot/streaks

3.3.3 Effects of crop diseases lower yields reduced quality produce

UNIT 4.0: ANIMALS

TOPICS 4.1:

i) Adaptation of animals
ii) Livestock diseases

4.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain how animals adapt to the environment
b) identify signs of ill health in livestock
c) state effects of ill health.

4.3 Content

4.3.1 Feeding habits of mammals (two examples of each)

herbivores
carnivores
omnivores

Hint: Structures of jaws and dental formula not required.

4.3.2 Adaptation of beaks of birds to feeding

grain eater (chicken)
filter feeder (duck) .
flesh eater (eagle, hawk)
nectar feeder (sunbird)

4.3.3 Movement

flying (presence of wings and streamlined body)
swimming (fins, webbed feet and streamlined body)
I lopping, and leaping (strong hind legs)

4.3.4 Signs of ill health in livestock

stunted growth
loss of weight
reduced yields
rough coat
coughing
blood in stool

4.3.5 Effects of livestock diseases

lower yields
reduced quality of products
transmission of diseases to human beings
death

UNIT 5.0: WATER

TOPICS 5.1:

i) Soft and hard water
ii) Softening hard water

5.2 Specific Objectives.

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) state the difference between soft and hard water
b) investigate disadvantages of hard water
c) soften hard water by boiling.

5.3 . Content

5.3.1 Difference between soft and hard water (lathering only)
5.3.2 Disadvantages of hard water
5.3.3 Softening hard water by boiling

UNIT 6.0: ENVIRONMENT

TOPICS 6.1:

i) Soil pollution ,
ii) Soil conservation
iii) Air pollution

6.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain meaning-of soil pollution
b) describe effects of soil pollution on the environment
c) explain the meaning of soil conservation
d) describe soil conservation methods
e) practise soil conservation
f) describe how air gets polluted
g) state effects of air pollution
h) identify ways in which air pollution- can be controlled
i) appreciate the need to maintain and use the resources in the environment wisely.

6.3 Content

6.3.1 Meaning of soil pollution
6.3.2 Effects of soil pollution

on plants
on animals

(small animals in soil and bacteria)

6.3.3 Meaning of soil conservation
6.3.4 Soil conservation methods

* avoiding excess use of fertilizers and pesticides
* avoiding dumping of industrial waste, on soil
avoiding burning vegetation cover
mulching
cover crops
terracing
contour farming
tree planting
gabions
controlled grazing/proper stocking

6.3.5 Ways in which air is polluted
smoking cigarettes burning
tyres and plastic materials
gases from vehicle exhausts
spraying farm chemicals
aerosol sprays
industrial waste gases

6.3.6 Effects of air pollution
on plants on animals on
non-living things (damaging roofs made of corrugated iron sheets)

6.3.7 Ways of controlling air pollution

not smoking cigarettes
not burning tyres and plastic materials
driving vehicles with well maintained engines
reducing use of farm chemicals
avoiding use of harmful aerosol sprays
treating waste industrial gases to make them safe

UNIT 7.0: FOODS AND NUTRITION

TOPICS 7.1:

i) Nutritional requirement for special groups
ii) Food poisoning

Specific Objectives

By the end of this -topic, the learner should be able to:
a) identify nutritional requirements for special groups
b) name causes of food poisoning
c) prevent food poisoning.

Content

Nutrition for pregnant and lactating mothers.
Nutrition for infants
value of breast milk
Nutrition for people with H1V/A1DS
Causes of food poisoning

chemicals
micro-organisms

Hint: Details of procedures and names of chemicals, and other poisoning agents not required. Ways of preventing food poisoning

UNIT 8.0: ENERGY

TOPICS 8.1:
i) Meaning of energy.
ii) Transformation of energy
iii) Conservation of energy

8.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain what energy is
b) describe the different types of energy
c) describe transformation of energy
d) state methods of conserving energy
e) appreciate the need to conserve energy:

8.3 Content

8.3.1 Meaning of energy

8.3.2 Different types of energy

chemical
heat
light
magnetic
electricity
sound

8.3.3 Transformation of energy

electric circuit
food
burning fuels
radio
simple electromagnet

8.3.4 Methods of conserving energy

using energy sparingly
using energy efficient devices
using renewable energy (wind, sun, biogas. planting trees)

UNIT 9: MAKING WORK EASIER

TOPIC 9.1: Simple machines

9.2 Specific Objectives

By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to;
a) investigate how inclined planes make work easier
b) investigate how single fixed pulleys make work easier.

9.3 Content

9.3.1 Inclined planes

Ladder
Staircase
A road winding up a hill

9.3.2 Single fixed pulley
Uses of single fixed pulleys such as on the flag post

TEACHING/LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Observation
Demonstration.
Discussion
Question and answer

Drawing
Practicals
Projects
Visits
Nature walks

RESOURCES

- Real items
- Living things - plants and animals
- Non-living things such as Metals- batteries, wires, nails and tins, Non-metals - wood, charcoal, plastics, rubber, paper, glass, fibres, soap bulbs and candles

Liquids - water, ink, milk, kerosene

Posters
Charts
Pictures
Photographs
Audiotapes
Video tapes
Films
Environment
Guest speakers

ASSESSMENT

Continuous assessment of the pupils is necessary during the coverage of the Science course.- This will enable the teacher to identify the slow and quick learners and offer the assistance required. The assessment will also tell the teacher whether or not the objectives of the course are being achieved.

Some of the methods that the teacher can use to assess pupils are:

1. Observation

The teacher observes pupils at work either individually or in groups. This method is the commonest in lower primary classes where pupils have not learnt how to write.
The teacher should also assess the finished products made by pupils and award marks. Through observation, the teacher can also tell which skills pupils have acquired. Observation should also
be done by the teacher to check on the pupils development of attitudes.

2. Oral questioning

The teacher should carefully plan questions to ask pupils. These should include recall type as well as higher level of thinking e.g. reasoning and evaluation
questions.-
3. Written Tests/Examination The teacher should always mark pupils' written work and go over the corrections
with them.

4. Project Work

This should be assessed by the teacher and marks awarded to groups or individuals. Whatever method, of assessment the teacher uses, he/she should always have
the child at (he centre of his/her planning.