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Tourism - Geography Form 4

By the end of the session you should be able to;

a) define tourism and eco-tourism

b) distinguish between domestic and international tourism

c) explain factors influencing tourism in Kenya

d ) identify and  discuss tourist attractions in Kenya

e) discuss the significance of tourism

f) explain the problems facing tourism.

explain the problems associated with tourism

discuss the future of tourism in Kenya

compare and contrast tourism in Kenya and Switzerland

TOURISM

Definition of tourism

Tourism refers to organized travelling for pleasure to places of interest.It includes all the service connected with the travel e.g. accommodation, transport and entertainment

Definition of eco tourism

Eco- tourism refers to tourism with emphasis on the conservation of the environment.

Domestic Tourism


Domestic tourism refers to a type of tourism involving citizens of the country visiting particular places of interest within their country. E.g. a visit by a Kenyan to Nakuru National Park.

  1. provide a video clip showing Kenyan students (or any other visiting lake Nakuru
  2. International tourism

    This includes traveling for pleasure to places outside one's own country for a holiday e.g a Kenyan going to Switzerland for holiday

  • provide a video clip of tourists visiting the coast or any game reserve (international tourisms)

Factors influencing tourism in Kenya

There are various factors influencing tourism in Kenya.  these factors are of two categories
I. Physical factors

Physical factors are gifts of nature which human beings have no control over although they can influence them.  These factors include; Climate, Scenery, Wildlife

Climate: - Kenya has a pleasant climate especially the sunny weather throughout the year which is very appealing to visitors from temperate regions (cold regions) during winter seasons (December)

  1. Provide a photograph showing the sun with some rays and the sky has few clouds

Scenery: - Kenya has a wide range of attractive scenery e.g. show caped mount Kenya, sandy beaches, beautiful lakes, Great rift valley and great rivers with numerous waterfalls

  1. provide a video clip/photo graphs of snow caped mount Kenya, Rift valley system and the beaches

Wildlife: - Kenya has a variety of flora and fauna.  this includes varied vegetation type and wild animals in their natural habitat
provide a photograph of a forest (Abardare or any other
provide a photograph of the wild animals at a national park
II. Human factors
There are factors that affect tourism and are caused by human activities.  They include; Traditional culture, Infrastructure, Accommodation, Government support, Publicity

Traditional culture
 Kenya has forty two ethnic groups with distinct cultures .  some of which attract tourists e.g. the masai traditional culture,
Provide photograph 4.1 showing Maasai market.  page 72 certificate Geography book 4
Infrastructure
 Many tourists sites and potential areas are accessible by road and some cases by air or water.  availability of telephone facilities and wireless communication systems are available throughout the country
Provide a photograph of a road system leading to a tourist e.g Emali amboselli (or any other)
provide a photograph of telephone lines leading to a national park Nakuru National park
provide photograph of wireless boosters

Accommodation
High class international hotels and cottages have been constructed in major towns, cities, national parts and game reserves for comfortable accommodation
Provide a photograph of Hilton hotel in Nairobi
Government support
The government has a full ministry in charge of tourism.  There are also other bodies such as the Kenya Tourists development to co-operations and the Kenya tourism board, tourist promotion offices are found in Tokyo (Japan), London (U.K, Paris (France) and New York (U.S.A)

  1. provide  a photograph  of sign board showing ministry of tourism
  2. provide photography of tourism offices in Japan, U.K France and New York (from the internet Kenya offices)

Publicity
A lot of campaigns is done through mass media seminars and advertisement of tourism in foreign markets
provide a video clip showing adverts for tourism campaigns (get from Kenya Tourists Board)
 Presence of preserved attraction
Kenya has preserved pre historical sites and monuments for tourists to visit e.g. Gedi ruins at the coast, olorgesailie prehistoric site in  Kajiado and fort in Mombasa
Provide a video of Gedi ruins at the coast, Olorgesaillie site in kajiado and Fort Jesus in Mombasa
Political stability
Kenya has enjoyed political stability and peace since independence

Provide any photograph showing Kenyans during various activities in a peaceful environment

Training in Tourism
Kenya has a number of training institutions that provide professional training in all aspect of tourism.  Industry e.g. the Utalii collage in Nairobi
Provide a video clip of Utalii college in Nairobi
Research programs
These are done by Kenya wildlife services and the Kenya Forest service on both the animals and the tree species
Provide a photograph of KWS and Kenya Forest office

By the end of the session you should be able to;

a) explain factors influencing tourism in Kenya

d ) identify and  discuss tourist attractions in Kenya

e) discuss the significance of tourism

f) explain the problems facing tourism.

explain the problems associated with tourism

discuss the future of tourism in Kenya

compare and contrast tourism in Kenya and Switzerland

Factors influencing tourism in Kenya

There are various factors influencing tourism in Kenya.These factors are in two categories:

  • Physical factors
  • Human factors

Physical factors

Physical factors are gifts of nature which human beings have no control over although they can influence them. These factors include; Climate, Scenery, Wildlife

Climate:-Kenya has a pleasant climate, especially the warm sunny weather throughout the year which is very appealing to visitors from cold temperate regions.


Scenery

Kenya has a wide range of attractive scenery e.g. snow capped mount Kenya, sandy beaches, beautiful lakes,the great Rift Valley and many rivers with waterfalls.

Wildlife

Kenya has a variety of flora and fauna.These include varied vegetation types and wild animals in their natural habitat.

Human factors

These are factors that affect tourism and are caused by human activities.They include; traditional culture, infrastructure, accommodation, government support, publicity.


Traditional culture

Kenya has fourty two ethnic groups with distinct cultures, some of which attract tourists e.g. the Maasai traditional culture.


Infrastructure

Many tourists sites and potential areas are accessible.Varried modern communication systems are available in most parts of the country.


Accommodation

High class international hotels and cottages have been constructed in major towns, cities, national parks and game reserves for comfortable accommodation.

Government support

The government has a full ministry in charge of tourism.

  • There are other bodies such as the Kenya Tourist Development Corporation and the Kenya Tourism Board.
  • Kenya has established tourist promotion offices in Tokyo (Japan), London (U.K), Paris (France) and New York (U.S.A).
  • A lot of campaigning is done through mass media, seminars and advertisement in foreign markets

Presence of preserved attraction

Kenya has preserved pre historical sites and monuments for tourists to visit e.g. Gedi ruins at the coast, olorgesailie prehistoric site in Kajiado and Fort Jesus in Mombasa.

Political stability

Kenya has enjoyed political stability and peace since independence.

Training in Tourism

Kenya has a number of training institutions that provide professional training in all aspecst of tourism industry e.g. the Utalii College in Nairobi.


Research programs

These are done by Kenya Wildlife service and the Kenya Forest service on both the animals and the tree species.

Tourist attractions in Kenya

The map provided shows the major tourist attractions in Kenya


The tourists attractions in Kenya are grouped into two; those found at the Kenyan coast and Those found inland


The main attractions at the coast

  • The Kenyan coast has extensive beaches from the south coast to the North of Malindi. These beaches attract tourists
  • The climate is warm hence attracts the tourists from the cold temperate regions. It's ideal for swimming and sunbathing
  • The coastal strip is also linked up with magnificent tourists hotels and beach cottages
  • Malindi marine National park
  • Historical sites e.g. Gedi ruins, Fort Jesus Vasco-da-Gama pillar at Malindi and Shimoni caves on south coast
  • Unique mangrove forests and swamps along the coast. This occupy the shallow sea Greeks
  • Remarkable raised and rich culture of the people at the coast.These people are warm and hospitable to visitors
    • The main attractions inland

      Kenya's inland tourist attractions are;

    • Wildlife in its natural habitat.This includes varied fauna and flora
    • Kenya is a land of contrasting landscapes which include volcanic features, snow capped mount Kenya, great rift valley the plateaus, the plains and lakes.
    • Inland historic sites e.g Kariandusi prehistoric site near Gilgil and Olorgesaillie near Magadi and several museums
    • Significance of Tourism

      Tourism is one of the leading economic activities in Kenya. The following are the benefits of tourism:

      • Tourism earns the country foreign exchange.
      • The tourism industry employs many people both directly and indirectly since it's a service industry
      • The government locally collects revenue from entrance fees, license fees charged on hotel operators
      • Roads connecting tourists attraction areas have been improved and new ones constructed thus benefiting the community living along the roads
      • It has led to protection of designated wildlife areas thus conservation of wildlife which is our natural heritage
      • It has led to establishment of training institutions this has led to expansion of institutions
      • It has led to promotion of international relations when tourists visit various countries, international understanding between the countries is promoted

      Problems facing Tourism

      The tourism industry in Kenya faces a number of problems.These are:

    • Insecurity
    • Poaching
    • Terrorism
    • Demand for land
    • Environmental pollution
    • Insecurity

      Tourists are many a time robbed of their belongings and the many ethnic skirmishes discourage potential tourists from visiting the country

      Poaching

      Many animals are killed by poachers which can lead to extinction of certain species of animals.

      Terrorism

      Kenya has been a target of terrorist attacks on a number of occasions for example the 1998 terrorists bomb targeting the American Embassy and the Kikambala hotel in 2002 this scares tourists to other destinations.

      Demand for land

      Increase in population has led to encroachment into land that has been reserved for wildlife.This is for purposes of cultivation and settlement.

      Environmental pollution

      Industrial development and other human activities have led to pollution of environment particularly rivers and lakes thus destroying aquatic life which is a major tourist attraction

      Prolems associated with Tourism in Kenya

      Tourism, though beneficial to the economy also creates some problems.These are;

    • Encouraging poaching
    • Increases in drug abuse
    • Increase in crime
    • Change in social value
    • Over emphasis on tourism
    • Shortage of hotel accommodation
    • Effect on wildlife and the environment
    • Encouraging poaching

      Some poachers kill animals so as to provide the much needed souvenirs in the form of game trophies.

      Increases in drug abuse

      Some tourists come to Kenya with the purpose of trafficking drugs. They also provide export bases to some established destination while at the same time selling the drugs locally.The youth are also introduced to drugs by the tourists.

      Change in social values

      Tourism at times leads to erosion of social values of the local people who prefer the foreign culture, thereby leading to adoption of some practices considered unethical in the local environment for example the increase in the commercial sex workers at the coast.

      Over emphasis on tourism

      The government at times over emphasize development in the tourisms sector at the expense of the essential areas.This leads to economic problems especially when the targeted number of tourists is not realized and the government may have borrowed heavily to develop tourism activities.

      Shortage of Hotels

      The hotels are fully booked for several weeks during the peak seasons and this makes the cost of services in the hotels and game lodges to go up and this discourages domestic tourists from visiting the local attractions.

      Effect on wildlife and the environment

      The movement of tourists and their vehicles within the game reserves has negative impact on the fragile ecology of the parks.  Some tourists throw refuse carelessly in the parks which when swallowed are harmful to animals especially plastics.

      The future of tourism in Kenya

      The under developed tourists attraction especially in the North Eastern province and some parts of the rift valley need to be developed e.g. improvement of the roads, airstrips, establishment of good accommodation and improvement of security.


      Kenya has taken measures to promote tourism by setting up the ministries of tourism and wildlife and forestry assisted by the ministry of environment and natural resources. Other bodies such as the Kenya Tourist Development. Corporation (K.T.D.C) Kenya Tourist Board (KTB) and the Ecotourism Society of Kenya have also promoted tourism.


      Kenya with the assistance of some industrialized nations have set up mechanisms including legislation to counter terrorists activities.Kenya is also encouraging potential tourists by improving security.


      The government of Kenya has shifted focus towards the development of alternative forms of tourism which contribute to the conservation of the environment (Ecotourism)

      Compare and contrast Tourism in Kenya and Switzerland


      Similarities

      Some of the similarities are;

      • Kenya has permanent glaciers on top of Mount Kenya and Switzerland has snow capped mountain peaks and glaciers throughout the year and lower slopes have snow during winter.

    • Kenya has many waterfalls along her rivers and Switzerland also has many waterfalls which are associated with hanging valleys.
        • Kenya has a number of national parks with a large variety of plant and animal life and Switzerland also has a national park with a variety of plant and animal life.
        • Both countries have springs which are considered as health spas thus tourist attractions.
        • There are domestic and international tourists in both countries
        • Both countries encourage package tours which comprises a large number of tourists.
        • Both countries experience political stability and peace which promotes tourism.
        • Kenya has many inland and coastal hotels as well as lodges in the game reserves for accommodating tourist Switzerland also has very many hotels, lodges and chalets which accommodated tourists.

        Differences

        There are many areas where the two countries differ in tourism.This includes.

      • Kenya's mountains are high and steep hence skiing sport cannot take place. Switzerland has large areas of smooth slopes covered with snow for skiing sport to take place.
      • Kenya has a variety of physical features such as the rift valley, lakes, mountains and plains while in the Switzerland the main physical feature is the Alps.
      • Kenyans climate is warm throughout the year while Switzerland experiences warm summer and cold winte.
      • Kenya has a sea front where water sports such as yachting, water and wind surfing are practiced. Her beaches are sunny which makes them ideal for sunbathing.Switzerland is land locked and has no access to sea beaches and some of the associated sports.
      • The abundance of marine life in the marine parks of Kenya is an attraction but Switzerland have no sea fronts thus lacks marine life reserves.

      • Kenya is rich in a variety of tropical flora and fauna. Animals such as elephants, cheetah, lion, giraffe and rhino are present.Switzerland lacks this kind of wildlife
      • Kenya is rich in traditional culture due to the different ethnic communities living in the country. Switzerland has fewer ethnic communities therefore has less variety in culture.
      • Switzerland has motor bike trails and special cycling routers which lacks in Kenya.
      • Switzerland receives more visitors than Kenya. Her revenue from the industry is thus much higher compared to Kenya.
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