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Rise of African Nationalism

Rise of African Nationalism

Nationalism means national pride, patriotism and belonging to one's own country. A nation means people who belong to the same tribe, religion and geographical location. However, Nationalism in Africa was the struggle for independence against colonialism.

Rise of African Nationalism

Nationalism means national pride, patriotism and belonging to one's own country. A nation means people who belong to the same tribe, religion and geographical location. However, Nationalism in Africa was the struggle for independence against colonialism.

A picture of Africans under their colonial masters

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

1. Define the term Nationalism.

2. Discuss the factors that favoured the development of African Nationalism.

3. Explain the growth of Ghanaian Nationalism.

4. State the methods used by Ghanaian Nationalists in their struggle for independence.
 


 

Factors favouring Development of African Nationalism

Factors that brought about Nationalism in Africa were as follows:

1) Discontentment of Second World War ex-service men who were not compensated for their services in the war

2) Africans were exposed to radical nationalism through interactions with other people

3) Influence from other countries granted independence namely India and Pakistan

4) Western educated elite enabled Africans demand for their rights

5) The Pan-African Movement inspired African nationalists in their struggle for independence

6) The formation of UN after 1945 supported decolonization of colonized people

7) Disregard of traditional African rulers by colonialists

8) The resentment of oppressive colonial policies such as land alienation, taxation and racial segregation


 

Growth of Ghanaian Nationalism

Active nationalism in Ghana started after the second world war around 1945 when the UN declared the right of all the people to choose the form of government under which to live into govern them. The process of nationalism that eventually led to independence started with the formation of the first national political parties in 1947.

- After 1945, the radical nationalists in Ghana demanded for complete independence

- Nationalism in Ghana was characterized by formation of Political Movements which included United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) in 1947

- The Accra riots of 1948 spread to other parts of the country after British soldiers killed people who were marching to present their grievances. Kwame Nkrumah and other nationalists were arrested


Other causes of Ghanaian nationalism included low profits from the sale of cocoa and high prices of European manufactured goods;

- Also there was selective granting of trading licences to European traders while denying the same to Africans

- After the riots, it was recommended that Ghana needed a new constitution to cater for African interests

- In 1949 Kwame Nkrumah formed Convention Peoples Party which demanded for independence and got support from the masses

- In 1950 Kwame encouraged constitutional strikes, boycotts and non-co-operation without the use of violence although violence broke out

- Government declared a state of emergency and Kwame and other officials of CCP were imprisoned

- During his imprisonment newspapers campaigned for independence

- In 1951 a general election was held and CCP won and Kwame formed the government

- In 1954 National Liberation Movement (NLM) emerged to compete with CCP but was defeated

- In 1957 Ghana attained independence and Kwame Nkrumah became Prime Minister.


 

Methods used by Ghanaians in the struggle for Independence

The Ghanians used various methods in their fight for independence. Some of them were;
� The use of public rallies
� The formation of Trade Unions
� The Africans demonstrated, boycotted and used strikes against the colonial rule
� The International Fora and nationalists presented their grievances such as UNO
� The use of publications such as the Evening News Magazines
� Africans participated in constitutional negotiations such as Coussey Commission
� In 1957 Ghana attained independence and Kwame became Prime Minister

 

Methods used by Ghanaians in the struggle for Independence

The Ghanians used various methods in their fight for independence. Some of them were;

1) The use of public rallies

2) The formation of Trade Unions

3) The Africans demonstrated, boycotted and used strikes against the colonial rule

4) The use of international fora such as the UN to present their grivances

5) The use of publications such as the Accra Evening News Magazines

6) Africans participated in constitutional negotiations such as Coussey Commission

7) In 1957 Ghana attained independence and Kwame became Prime Minister.

Kwame Nkruma

 

Prior Knowledge

In the precious topic we discussed the causes of African Nationalism that resulted to the independence of African countries in the 1960s. They included the effects of the Second World War, pressure from the United Nations Organisation (UNO) and the super powers together with the general change of attitude towards colonization in the world. In this lesson, we shall discuss the struggle for independence in Mozambique



 

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

:
Discuss the rise and growth of nationalism in Mozambique



 





 

Rise and Growth of African Nationalism in Mozambique

Portuguese interest in Mozambique dates back to the arrival of Vasco da Gama in the 15th Century. During the period of the scramble and partition of Africa between 1880 to 1914 Portugal established chartered companies to control Mozambique. In this lesson, we shall discuss the struggle for independence in Mozambique.

Map showing Mozambique
 

Course of Nationalism in Mozambique

Mozambique was one of the Portuguese colonies in Africa. The struggle for liberation started with the formation of political parties. Formation of political parties in Mozambique delayed up to the 1960s because the colony was treated as an extension of Portugal and not allowed to form any political associations. Other reasons included:

- The large size of Mozambique colony

- Existence of many ethnic groups

- Strict and rigorous censorship by the security forces.

Map of Mozambique

Mozambicans in exile formed a number of political movements. Among these were the National Democratic Union of Mozambique (UDENEM0), the African Union of Independent Mozambique (UNAMI) and the Mozambique National Union (MANU). In 1962, these parties merged to form a common front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) with Eduardo Mondlane as president of the Movement. Its headquarters were in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

Eduardo Mondlane

 





 

Grievances of the Mozambiquans against Colonial Rule

The Mozambicans were negatively affected by the Portuguese colonial administration. What were the grievances of the Africans in Mozambique? Some of them were;

1) Forced labour where Africans were forced to work on sugar plantations, cotton fields and public works

2) They were forced to pay heavy hut taxes

3) Racial discrimination against the Africans especially in job opportunities, education and health

4) Land alienation by the settlers

5) Poor working conditions and low wages for Africans

6) Restriction of African movement

7) Brutality, oppression and arbitrary arrests and murder of Africans

The War of Liberation

The main events in the war of liberation in Mozambique were as follows;

- Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO) started full scale guerilla war in Mozambique from 1964

- The war broke out at once in four provinces which undermined the Portuguese forces who had been waiting for them along the Tanzanian border

- The Organization of African Union (OAU) supported FRELIMO financially while Tanzania provided a base for the headquarters. Other frontline states provided training to the freedom Fighters and other material support

- In 1969 Eduardo Mondlane was assassinated and Samora Machel replaced him in 1970 as president of FRELIMO

- In 1974 there was a coup de tat in Portugal that overthrew the government and replaced it with a new one that wanted all Portuguese colonies to be granted independence

- On 25th June 1975, Mozambique attained independence with Samora Machel as the first president.

Problems faced by FRELIMO in the struggle for Independence

What do you think were the problems faced by the FLELIMO in the struggle for independence? (Pause) Some of the problems faced by FRELIMO in the struggle for independence were;

1) They were operating from exile which complicated their effective operations

2) They lacked adequate finance to carry out their activities

3) There were internal divisions and rivalry that led to a section of FRELIMO breaking away to form the Revolutionary Committee of Mozambique (COREMO)

4) Poor weapons and lack of proper training of the freedom fighters

5) The Catholic church in Mozambique viewed FRELIMO fighters as terrorists and was reluctant to support them

6) There was shortage of food, clothes, medicine and other supplies to the freedom fighters

7) In 1969 assassination of Eduardo Mondlane was a setback to the struggle for independence

 




 

Objective

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

(a) Discuss the rise and growth of nationalism in South Africa.
 




 




 

Rise and Growth of African Nationalism in South Africa

The history of South Africa is characterised by a conflict between two competing nationalisms, ie Afrikaner (Boer) Nationalism on one side, Africans and other non white on the other side.

- The first whites to settle in South Africa were the Boers (Dutch) from Holland in 1652. After the Berlin conference, the British also got interested in South Africa for strategic reasons.

- This resulted to the Great Trek and the three Anglo-Boer wars of 1902, 1906 and 1909 where the British lost in all of them

- In 1910 Britain granted independence to the union of the Dutch and British migrants settled in South Africa. This excluded the Black Africans who were the majority

- Therefore nationalism in South Africa in the 20th Century was a struggle between the majority black Africans against the minority whites (Boers) to be included in the running of the South African government.




 

African Nationalist Activities

In the 20th century there was a struggle between the majority black Africans against the minority (Boer) to be included in the running of South African government. To do this, Africans involved themselves in natianalistic activities eg

- In 1912, the South African nationalists formed the first strong anti-apartheid movement called African Native Congress which became African National Congress (ANC) in 1923

- In 1943, the ANC Youth League mobilized the masses to civil disobedience

- In 1959, the Pan African Congress was formed and organized peaceful demonstration against oppressive policies such as pass laws. The police opened fire on the crowd resulting into the Sharpeville Massacre of 1960

-From 1960, African nationalism went underground following the ban of political parties.

'Umkhonto We Sizwe' which means 'spear of the nation' was formed after the Sharpeville massacre

- In 1990 the president of South Africa Fredrick de Klerk lifted the ban on anti-apartheid movements and released political prisoners including Nelson Mandela

- In April 1994, the first multi-racial elections were held and ANC won by a landslide

- On 10th May 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first African president of South Africa.

Nelson Mandela

Click on the play button to view the clip from Sarafina Movie on the Sharpeville massacre where innocent people including children were killed.

 

Nationalists in the Liberation

Besides Nelson Mandela, other notable nationalists in the liberation of blacks in South Africa were:

- Pixley Ka Isaka Seme

- Rev. John Dube

- Walter Sisulu

- Steve Biko

- Oliver Tambo

- Robert Sobukwe

- Archbishop Desmond Tutu

- Albert Luthuli

- Mongosuthu Buthelezi
 

Methods Used by Africans in the Liberation

In their struggle for indepence Africans in South Africa used various methods which included;

1) Armed revolts through ANC's military wing 'Umkhonto We Sizwe'

2) Street demonstrations

3) Strikes and boycotts by African workers

4) International forum where they could lobby for economic sanctions against the apartheid government

5) Church leaders and international musicians condemned the apartheid regime

6) Hunger strikes by the nationalists who were serving their jail terms

7) Through the mass media, for example, newspapers

Buthelezi




 


 



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