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Suggested Topic Activities


1. Discuss the various sources of power in the farms around you. 2 a). Visit a nearby agricultural farm or institution and list the different types of tractor and animal drawn implements available. State their uses and maintainance practices. b). Identify the various parts of and tractor engine. 3.a.)Discuss with the farmers the possible challenges they face when using farm implements. b) Inquire from the tractor attendant to demonstrate how to carry out simple maintainance practices

Background Information
Farm power refers to any source of energy used to do work on the farm.
In our previous studies you learnt about simple hand tools and equipment commonly used in the farm.
In this chapter, you will learn about various sources of power that are used In the farm. You will also learn about the various tractor and animal drawn farm implements commonly used In the farm.
The machines ensures better quality work and produce especially in processes that are difficult to execute by hand alone.
Tractor harrowing a ploughed field, Oxen ploughing a field with an ox-plough, Wind power generator, Knapsack sprayer In use in a vegetable field

Ag4-300000BAnimP
Animate background photograph of modern agricultural machines like tractors and their equipment, more land can be cleared and planted yielding more harvests, and saving more costs and time.
animate background photograph









GLOSSARY
Common terms in farm power and machinery.
Air cooling system- applicable to small engines for example, lawn mower, power saws. A fan pushes air to the attached engine cooling it.
Animal power-Animal power is derived from domesticated animals in the farm. It includes; donkeys, horses, oxen, mules, buffaloes.
Biogas- Biogas is flammable gas produced when organic matter such as animal dung is fermented in a biogas digester, to produce methane gas. The gas is used for various activities in the farm such as cooking, lighting and warming a house.
Biomass- Biomass fuel refers to the power that is derived from plant and animal matter. It includes; Wood fuel, Charcoal, Biogas.
Compression stroke- The piston moves upwards, inlet valve is closed and the fuel air mixture is compressed in the combustion chamber.
Disc Plough- They are of heavy concave discs mounted on a beam by the disc hangers. They are preferred on pieces of land that has obstacles. The discs can either be plain or notched.
Exhaust stroke- The piston moves up the cylinder, the exhaust gases are pushed out through the open outlet valve.
Farm power-refers to any source of energy used to do work on the farm.
Force feed system- the oil is forced to circulate in the engine by a pumping mechanism
Fossil Fuel- This is the power derived from combustion of fossil fuels such as Petroleum, coal and natural gas.
Four stroke cycle - The cycle is completed in four strokes during which the crankshaft makes a total of two revolutions.
Geothermal power - This is hot steam trapped underneath the earths surface, it is harnessed and used to drive turbines to generate electricity.
Human power- This refers to the use of human labour to accomplish various farm activities, mostly light tasks such as clearing the land, weeding and spraying crops.
Induction stroke - The piston moves downwards, causing the inlet valve to open letting in the fuel air mixture
Lubrication reduces friction between moving parts and acts as a cleaning agent removing dirt and metal parts increasing efficiency.
Mouldboard Plough-This is a type of plough suited to be used in fields free of obstacles of all kinds. It operates at uniform depth once it has been adjusted. It comprises of the following parts.
Nuclear power- This is energy derived from decomposition of nuclear fuel such as Uranium in a nuclear reactor. It produces heat that is converted to electricity
Oil mist system- the oil is mixed with fuel in the petrol tank
One point hitch attachment- In this method implements are attached to the draw bar, at the rear of the tractor.
Power stroke The fuel air mixture is fully compressed and is ignited by a spark or heater plugs, the pressure resulting from the expansion forces the piston downwards.
Solar energy is a radiant energy derived from the sun. It is commonly used in the farm for the following uses; Drying of agricultural produce, Source of solar electricity, heating water. It is also used by plants in photosynthesis.
Splash feed system- crankshaft is continuously dipped in oil and splashed up as it moves
Sub soiler- They are heavy implements used commonly in primary cultivation in fields that have developed a hard pan. They have heavy rigid tines that penetrate deep below the top soil into the sub-soil breaking the hardpan to facilitate aeration and water infiltration into the soil.
The clutch- connects and disconnects the drive shaft to and from the engine, it enables the tractor to take off smoothly and gradually. It is made up of three components namely, the crankshaft, the friction disc and the pressure plate each performs a specific function.
The Diesel fuel system- This system uses diesel fuel for combustion in the engine. It is fitted wit an injector pump and nozzles to inject fuel and air mixture in a spray form into the cylinder and combusted by the high pressure in the cylinder.
The Differential- Transmits power from the engine to the rear wheels allowing them to turn at different speeds especially when negotiating corners and prevents skidding. The differential lock prevents the wheels from slipping or skidding
The Gear box-It is used to provide and select different forward and reverse speeds to suit the operation being undertaken.
The Lubrication System There are three types of lubrication systems in a tractor, these are;
The Ox Mouldboard Plough- It is used for ploughing land commonly with oxen, though other draught. It is light in weight, simple to use and require no special skills to operate.
The petrol fuel system- This system uses petrol fuel for combustion in the engine. It is fitted wit a carburetor to atomize and mix fuel and air before they are combusted.
The Power Take off (P.T.O) - The implement is attached to the PTO point at the rear of the tractor.
The Trailer- The trailer is the main implement used for transport in the farm. It is attached the tractor by the means of a draw bar at the rear of the tractor. Trailer sizes vary depending on the needs of the farmer.
Three point hitch attachment- It is attachment where the implement is attached to the tractor at three points namely the top linkage, lower left and right arms. The implements maybe operated by the hydraulic system and include
Two stroke cycle The cycle is completed in two strokes and the crankshaft makes one complete revolution to complete the cycle.
Water cooling system- large engines use this cooling system. The water is held in a radiator and pumped in a sleeve around the outside of the engine cooling continuously.
Water power- This is power derived from running water. Water is harvested and stored in reservoirs. It is then used to produce hydro-electric power which operates various types of machines in the farm.
Wind power -Wind power is derived from moving wind. It is used to perform various tasks in the farm such as winnowing of grains, pumping water and production of electricity.

Topic Objectives

By the end of this topic, you should be able to; describe various sources of power in the farm. describe the various tractor systems. describe the various tractor implements, their uses and maintenance. describe tractor service and maintenance practices.

Farm power and machinery

Introduction

In order to carry on many tasks in the farm, some sources of power is required. Many different sources of power can be found in the farm ranging from simple charcoal burners to electric generators. The various sources of power are usually used to operate machinery to enable much more work to be done than would otherwise be possible by manually only. With use of modern agricultural machines like tractors and their equipment, more land can be cleared and planted yielding more harvests, and saving more costs and time. The machines ensure better quality work and produce, especially in processes that are difficult to execute by hand alone.

Sources of farm power

Introduction

Farm power refers to any source of energy used to do work on the farm. In our previous studies you learnt about simple hand tools and equipment commonly used in the farm. In this chapter, you will learn about various sources of power that are used In the farm. You will also learn about the various tractor and animal drawn farm implements commonly used In the farm. Farm power refers to any source of energy used to do work on the farm. In our previous studies you learnt about simple hand tools and equipment commonly used in the farm.


Human power

This refers to the use of human labour to accomplish various farm activities, mostly light tasks such as clearing the land, weeding and spraying crops. However, human power is better employed in thinking and organization so as to control the other power resources in the farm.


Animal power

Animal power is derived from domesticated animals in the farm. It includes ; donkeys, horses, oxen, mules, buffaloes. They provide energy used in various ways in the farm such as transportation, cultivation and planting. They are referred to as draught animals. Activity Compare and contrast the human and animal power sources in the farm. Animal power is derived from domesticated animals in the farm. It includes ; donkeys, horses, oxen, mules, buffaloes. They provide energy used in various ways in the farm such as transportation, cultivation and planting. They are referred to as draught animals.

Wind power

Wind power is derived from moving wind. It is used to perform various tasks in the farm such as winnowing of grains, pumping water and production of electricity.Wind power is derived from moving wind. It is used to perform various tasks in the farm such as winnowing of grains, pumping water and production of electricity.

BIOMASS


Biomass fuel refers to the power that is derived from plant and animal matter. It includes; Wood fuel Charcoal Biogas

Wood and charcoal

Wood fuel is derived from plant materials using appropriate fire wood stove. Wood and charcoal is a common sources of power in the rural households. If its use is unchecked, it leads to deforestation and desertification. Farmers are encouraged to plant more trees and adopt more efficient methods of utilizing wood fuel. Wood and charcoal is a common sources of power in the rural households. If its use is unchecked, it leads to deforestation and desertification. Farmers are encouraged to plant more trees and adopt more efficient methods of utilizing wood fuel.

Charcoal

Charcoal is derived from plant materials using appropriate kiln and it is used with an energy saving jiko


Biogas

Biogas is flammable gas produced when organic matter such as animal dung is fermented in a biogas digester, to produce methane gas. The gas is used for various activities in the farm such as cooking, lighting and warming a house. The slurry from fermentation of the animal wastes can be used as fertilizer in the farms. Biogas is flammable gas produced when organic matter such as animal dung is fermented in a biogas digester, to produce methane gas. The gas is used for various activities in the farm such as cooking, lighting and warming a house. The slurry from fermentation of the animal wastes can be used as fertilizer in the farms.

Water Power

This is power derived from running water. Water is harvested and stored in reservoirs. It is then used to produce hydro-electric power which operates various types of machines in the farm. This is power derived from running water. Water is harvested and stored in reservoirs. It is then used to produce hydro-electric power which operates various types of machines in the farm.

Hydro power

Electricity is obtained from Hydro power stations. Hydro-electric power It is obtained from moving water which turn turbines that to produce electricity.


Geothermal power

This is hot steam trapped underneath the earths surface, it is harnessed and used to drive turbines to generate electricity.

Click the play button to see the video on geysers

Fossil Power

This is the power derived from combustion of fossil fuels such as Petroleum, coal and natural gas.

Petroleum

Petrol and diesel are used in internal combustion engines such as tractors and engine driven machines in the farm.

Kerosene is burnt in lamps to produce lighting homesteads and cooking .


Coal

Coal is used to provide a source of heating in farms, industries and electricity generating stations.

Natural gas

Natural gas is used for cooking heating and lighting at homes and in the farms.

Electric power

Electricity is obtained from Hydro power stations, Geothermal, Nuclear reactors, electric generators and storage batteries. Hydro-electric power It is obtained from moving water which turn turbines that to produce electricity.

Electric generators

Produce electricity on demand by burning fuel. Generators vary in size and model. Their efficiency need to be monitored with age.


Storage Battery

Batteries store electric current that can produce electricity on demand. Storage batteries are used to operate torches, calculators, vehicles, tractors and general lighting in the farm. Electricity is obtained from Hydro power stations, Geothermal, Nuclear reactors, electric generators and storage batteries.

Nuclear power

This is energy derived from decomposition of nuclear fuel such as Uranium in a nuclear reactor. It produces heat that is converted to electricity.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each of the above sources of power in the farm.

Solar energy

Solar energy is a radiant energy derived from the sun. It is commonly used in the farm for the following uses;
Drying of agricultural produce
Source of solar electricity
Heating water
It is also used by plants in photosynthesis


Tractor engine

The tractor is a mechanical equipment that provide power to operate various farm implements in the farm. Previously we learnt about the various sources of power. We will now learn how the tractor engine works, the tractor systems and tractor service and maintainance.

The modern tractor has internal combustion engine to burn petroleum (diesel or petrol). In the engine fuel is mixed with air and combusted under high pressure to provide the driving force which move the crankshaft to rotate.The linear motion of the crankshaft drives the tractor through the gear box. There are two types of working cycles in internal combustion engine namely; Four stroke cycle Two stroke cycle

Four strokes engines

In this type of engines, the cycle is completed in four strokes namely;

  • Induction stroke
  • Compressionstroke
  • Power stroke
  • Exhaust stroke

Induction stroke

During the induction stroke the following takes place in the piston chamber.

  • The piston moves down
  • Inlet valve opens.
  • Fuel-air mixture gets into the cylinder.
  • Fuel-air mixture gets into the cylinder

Compression stroke

During the Compression stroke the following takes place in the piston chamber Inlet valve closes. The piston moves up the cylinder. The fuel-air mixture is highly compressed by the upward piston movement.


Power stroke

During the Power stroke the following takes place in the piston chamber; Spark plug ignites the fuel-air mixture. Increased pressure forces the piston down the cylinder.


Exhaust stroke

  • At the bottom of the cylinder, the piston opens the exhaust valve.
  • Fuel-air mixture is transferred to the combustion chamber.

Two Stroke Cycle Engine

This type of engine is commonly used in small machines such as lawn mowers, water pumps, motorized sprayers, power saws among others.The engine has no valves but instead has three ports on the cylinder wall namely:

  • Inlet port.
  • Transfer port.
  • Exhaust port.

    The piston cycle is complete in two strokes only when the crankshaft makes one complete cycle. These are:

    • induction and compression stroke,
    • power and exhaust stroke.

    induction and compression stroke

    During the induction and compression stroke the following takes place in the piston cylinder;

    • Piston is at the bottom of cylinder.
    • Piston moves up and opens the inlet port.
    • Fuel-air mixture is drawn in through the inlet port.
    • Ignition of fuel-air mixture takes place when the piston the top of the cylinder by a spark produced by the spark plug.
    • Piston is forced downwards by the pressure generated by the burning fuel.

     

    Power and exhaust stroke

    During the power and exhaust stroke the following takes place in the piston cylinder;

    • Piston is forced downwards due to build up of pressure.
    • Inlet port is covered by the piston head which traps fresh fuel air mixture.
    • At the bottom of the cylinder, the piston opens the exhaust port.
    • Fuel-air mixture is transferred to the combustion chamber.

Systems of theTractor


The main tractor systems include the following; The fuel system The electrical system The ignition system Cooling system Lubrication system Transmission system


Fuel system

The fuel system is categorized into two types depending on the type of fuel used. These are: Petrol fuel system and Diesel fuel system.

Petrol fuel system

The petrol is put in a tank and passed through a pipe fitted with a filter and fuel pump.

Maintenance of petrol fuel system

  • Clean the jets regularly to avoid blockage.
  • Clean the fuel filter by washing them in petrol.
  • Always keep the hole in the fuel tank cap clean and open.

Diesel Fuel System

It has a fuel pump that distributes fuel into steel pipes. The pump meter injects the exact volume of diesel needed in the cylinder. The delivery pipes are fitted with series of fuel filters that trap any form of dirt thus keeping the pump clean.From the filters the fuel is fed to the injector pump that subjects it to high pressure. The fuel then comes out through injectors into the cylinders in form of a spray. A permanent bleed line is fitted to connect bleed points to fuel tank. This returns excess fuel back into the fuel tank.

Maintenance of Diesel Fuel System.

  • Filters to be replaced as recommended by manufacturer.
  • Bleeding to be done in case air is trapped in the system
  • Sediment bowl should be cleaned regularly.

The Electrical System.

The tractors electrical system is comprised of the following circuits;The ignition circuit The generator circuit or the dynamo The starter motor circuit The lighting circuit. Each of these circuits work independently but all of the rely on the battery and the generator for electric current.


Cooling system

Types of cooling systems

There are two types of cooling systems, Air cooling system and water cooling system. Air Cooling Systems This is commonly used in light weight farm machines e.g. mowers, motor bikes and landmasters.

Characteristics of air cooled engines

  • Simple in construction.
  • Have fins and a fan blade that assist in air circulation.
  • Light in weight as they have no radiators and water jackets.
  • Problems of Air cooled Engine.
  • Get hot quickly and use heavy lubricating oils.
  • Cooling is not adequate under all conditions especially when carrying heavy loads.

Water cooling system.

Water is used to absorb heat from the engine block at a reasonable rate. The major components of water cooled engine are; the radiator, water jackets, water hoses, water hoses, water pump, thermostat and fanning mechanism.

Care and maintenance of water cooling system

Water pump should be lubricated regularly. Clean water should be used in the radiator and trash from fins. All pipes should be fitted tightly to avoid leakage. Radiator should be filled with clean water before starting the days work. Fan belt tension should be checked regularly. And if too tight/too loose should be adjusted accordingly.


The Lubrication System

It comprises greasing and the oil supply system to all parts of the tractor to reduce the rate of wear and tear in all moving parts of the engine. Lubrication reduces friction between moving parts and acts as a cleaning agent removing dirt and metal parts increasing efficiency.There are three types of lubrication systems in a tractor, these are; Splash feed system- crankshaft is continuously dipped in oil and splashed up as it moves Force feed system- the oil is forced to circulate in the engine by a pumping mechanism Oil mist system- the oil is mixed with fuel in the petrol tank

The Transmission System

The major function of this system is to transfer the power from the tractor engine to the drive shaft, the wheel axle, the power take off system and the hydraulic system. It also provides different forward and reverse speeds for the tractor.

The system is made up of the following components; The clutch The gear box The differential The final drive.


Clutch

The clutch connects an disconnects the drive shaft to and from the engine, it enables the tractor to take off smoothly and gradually. It is made up of three components namely, the crankshaft, the friction disc and the pressure plate each performs a specific function.


Gear box

It is used to provide and select different forward and reverse speeds to suit the operation being undertaken. It is also allows the driver to stop the tractor without suddenly stopping the engine or continuously engaging the clutch pedal.


Differential

Transmits power from the engine to the rear wheels allowing them to turn at different speeds especially when negotiating corners and prevents skidding. The differential lock prevents the wheels from slipping or skidding


The Final Drive.

The final drive causes the application equal force to each wheel for turning and moving the tractor to do work. The final drive also allows the tyres to have maximum traction or grip.


The Transmission Mechanism

The power generated in the engine of the tractor is made available for use through the following; The propeller shaft. The power take off shaft (P.T.O) The hydraulic system. The draw bar. Each of these parts has connections points where farm implements and machinery can be attached and operated. The rear wheels provide the drive to do work.

Tractor Maintenance

Servicing and maintenance of the tractor ensures its efficient working and good condition . The service given to the tractor depends on the working hours or the part to be serviced. There are two kinds of tractor service namely; Short term service. Long term service. Always check on the tractors manual for instructions on how to carry out short and long term service on the tractor.

Routine tractor maintenance service operations.

Check the fuel level at the start of the day and top up if necessary. Check and top up water if necessary. Check and top up oil level if necessary. Check and top up the level of electrolyte if necessary. Inspect the battery terminals and grease the to prevent rusting. Tighten loose nuts and bolts, replace any lost nuts and bolts.

The Short Term Service.

Short term service depends on the part to be serviced and number working hours the tractor or the part has been in operation. Common short term service operations include; Check the fuel level at the start of the day and top up if necessary. Check and top up oil level if necessary. Check and top up water if necessary. Tighten loose nuts and bolts, replace any lost nuts and bolts. Apply grease to all greasing points. Check and adjust tyre pressure if necessary. Check fan belt tension and ensure it is tight. Check and top up the level of electrolyte if necessary. Inspect the battery terminals and grease the to prevent rusting.

Long Term Service.

Long term service is done after a long period, normally after a specified period of time ( hours or Kilometres), they include; Drain the engine oil and replace with new oil. Drain the gear box and steering box oil and replace the new oil. Replace the differential oil as recommended. Grease the linkage and pulley attachment as required.

Farm Implements

Tractor attachment methods

Farm implements are equipments and machinery that are used to do work in the farm. They can be used with tractors or with animals as the source of power. All implements are attached to power sources in various ways. You will learn about the common farm implements, how they are attached and their maintenance practices. There are three methods of attaching implements to a tractor, these are:
One point hitch attachment- In this method implements are attached to the draw bar, at the rear of the tractor. They include implements such as, Trailers, Harrows, Planters, Rollers
Three point hitch attachment- It is attachment where the implement is attached to the tractor at three points namely the top linkage, lower left and right arms. The implements maybe operated by the hydraulic system and include; ploughs, Harrows, planters, mowers.
The power take off (P.T.O)- The implement is attached to the PTO point at the rear of the tractor, include Sprayers, Mowers, Rotary cultivators.


Tractor Drawn implements.

Tractor drawn implements can be classified into the following broad categories on the basis of when they are used in the farm.Primary cultivation/ tillage implements, examples include; Disc ploughs, mouldboard ploughs, subsoilers.
Secondary cultivation/ tillage implements examples include; harrows like disc, spring tine, spike toothed, rotary cultivators,
Planting and Tertiary operation implements examples include; seeders and planters, rollers.
Weed control implements such as weeders or cultivators, boom sprayers.
Transport implements that include trailers. Land clearing implements examples include; mowers,
Harvesting and processing implements examples include; grain harvesters, root crop harvesters, forage harvesters Let us now learn about some of these implements.


Primary Tillage Implements.

Primary tillage are implements used in primary land preparation activities. They include ploughs and sub-soilers.

Disc Plough- They are of heavy concave discs mounted on a beam by the disc hangers . They are preferred on pieces of land that has obstacles. The discs can either be plain or notched.


Mouldboard Plough

This is a type of plough suited to be used in fields free of obstacles of all kinds. It operates at uniform depth once it has been adjusted. It comprises of the following parts.; share, mouldboard, disc coulter, landside, and the depth wheel.


Sub soiler

They are heavy implements used commonly in primary cultivation in fields that have developed a hard pan. They have heavy rigid tines that penetrate deep below the top soil into the sub-soil breaking the hardpan. They facilitate aeration and water infiltration into the soil.

Maintainance of Primary Tillage Implements

Ploughs and subsoilers must be maintained continuously to ensure their efficiency and performance. The following are some of the general practices carried out to maintain primary tillage implements; -Lubricate all the moving parts. -Repair all damaged parts and replace all worn out parts. -Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened. -Paint or apply used oil on all exposed metallic parts. -Clean the implement after use.


Secondary Tillage Implements

This refers to all those operations that are carried out after primary tillage operations. They are aimed at refining the seedbed tilth. The common implements include harrows and rotary cultivators. The table below gives a summary of the different types of harrows and their specific uses.

Maintainance of secondary tillage implements

The following are some of the general practices carried out to maintain secondary tillage implements ; Lubricate all the moving parts Repair or replace damaged and worn out parts. Clean after use. Tighten all loose nuts and bolts Apply oil or paint exposed metallic parts.


Tertiary operation

Tertiary implements includes ringers, rollers and planters used in the final touches of seedbed preparation and planting.

Weed control Implements

Cultivators and Weeders.

They are the implements used control of weeds through shallow cultivation in light soils. They include cultivators and weeders. Some have adjustable tines to make the implement suitable for weeding crops of different sizes. They are maintained by repairing or replacing any worn out parts. Boom sprayers are tractor mounted implements that can also be used to control weeds using herbicides. The atomize and deliver the herbicides in spray for. They are operated trough the power take off system of the tractor.


Land clearing implement eg. Mowers

They are used for cutting of vegetation in the farm. They can specifically be used for; Land clearing Hay harvesting Harvesting of forage crop The mowers are driven by the power take off system. There are of two type namely reciprocating mower and the rotary Gyro mower.


Harvesting Machines

The common implements used in the farm include; combine harvesters, Root crop Harvesters, and Forage Harvesters. Let us discuss each of these implements briefly, Combine harvesters: The modern combine harvester is a self propelled machine that carry out harvesting operation on cereal crops such as wheat, millet, sorghum, maize and others, as long as appropriate adjustments are made. Root crop harvester: The most common root crop such as potatoes groundnuts, beet roots and others. The harvesters are mainly ridgers. They open up the soil and unearths the crop produce being harvested, which is the collected and stored. Forage Harvesters. They are implements used to harvest forage crops such as Maize, Sorghum, Napier, Fodder Grasses. They operated by the tractor P.T.O. system of the tractor and chop the forage into pieces before they are fed to animals.

Transport implement

The Trailer.

The trailer is the main implement used for transport in the farm. It is attached the tractor by the means of a draw bar at the rear of the tractor. Trailer sizes vary depending on the needs of the farmer. Some trailers are offloaded manually while others are trough a means of hydraulic system of the tractor. The trailer should be maintained routinely like all the other farm implements.

Animal Drawn implements

They are implements used with draught animals and include the ox plough, ox cart and the ox trailer. Oxen is the most commonly used animal although Horses, Donkeys, Mules, camels, Water buffaloes and Lamas are used in different parts of the world. Oxen for draught purposes must carefully be bred, selected and managed. Let us learn about how to use and maintain some of these animal drawn implements.


The Ox Mouldboard Plough

It is used for ploughing land commonly with oxen, though other draught. It is light in weight, simple to use and require no special skills to operate.It Is also affordable to most farmers as it is cheap to buy and maintain.


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