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Roots

In addition to transport, roots also have the following functions:

Anchorage, that is, they hold the plant firmly in the soil.

Storage, for example in root tubers such as carrot and arrow root. Others store water for the plant.

Gaseous exchange

Absorption of water and mineral salts.

The graphic on next plate shows a generalised longitudinal section through a root tip of a dicot. Apical meristem cells are located behind the root cap and actively divide to give rise to new cells that are responsible for the elongation of the root. The root cap consists of simple parenchyma cells that protect the delicate apical meristem cells from mechanical damage.

You might have observed the following differences:

The monocot root has a pith at center.Phloem and xylem alternate around the pith.

The dicot root lacks a pith. Xylem forms a star shape and phloem occur between extentions of xylem.

The root cap consists of simple parenchyma cells that protect the delicate apical meristem cells from mechanical damage. Behind the root cap is the apical meristem cells which actively divide to give rise to new cells that are responsible for growth and elongation of the root.