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Water Supply Irrigation

Water Supply, Irrigation and Drainage - This is the study of how water is supplied and used in the farm. This topic will be covered in two lessons as shown below

* WATER SUPPLY AND WATER POLLUTION
* IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

Study how this community is using water

Introduction to water supply and pollution

Water is an important resource in agriculture. It is obtained from rivers, lakes, well and rain among others.Water used in the farm should be safe for both animals and plants.
Water pollution is the process which makes water harmful to living organism.

Water Supply, Irrigation and Drainage

This is the study of how water is supplied and used in the farm

This topic will be covered in two lessons as shown below

  • WATER SUPPLY AND WATER POLLUTION
  • IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

Study how this community is using water

Introduction to water supply and pollution

Water is an important resource in agriculture. It is obtained from rivers, lakes, well and rain among others.Water used in the farm should be safe for both animals and plants.
Water pollution is the process which makes water harmful to living organism.

A good example is water containing chemicals and microorganisms being used in the farm.

Why do farmers boil water from rivers before drinking?.


 

 

Water Supply and Pollution Glossary

1 )Cultivation along the river banks:- This opens the river banks to erosion making the water dirty. It is a government policy that when cultivating near a river a strip of 15m should be left with vegetation.

2 )Planting trees:- Trees control soil erosion and so they help to keep the water clean and prevent sedimentation of the rivers.

3 )Controlling weeds using herbicides:- Herbicides are toxic chemicals which when washed into the river makes the water poisonous

4 )Overgrazing:- This lead to soil erosion. Water run off from an overgrazed area finds its way into the river, polluting the water.

5 )Fertilizer application:- When fertilizers are applied into the soil they dissolve and drain into the water sources

6 ) Ridging:- Controls soil erosion and prevents water pollution

7) River bank :- Selection of land 15 meters from either side of the river span

8) Water pollution :- Introduction of contaminants into water bodies making it unsafe for livestock and crop production.

9) Herbicide :- Chemical substance used to control weeds.

10) Pump :- Any mechanical device used to lift water from one point to another

11) Using canals:-Canals are used to convey water for irrigation and livestock , water flows through the canals using gravitational force therefore they carry water from higher areas to lower areas

12) Using animals :-Water is put into containers such as drums, jerrycans, buckets and others. These water containers are carried by animals or animal pulled carts.

13) Using vehicles:- Water in containers such as tanks can be carried by large trucks or lories to where it is required

14) Using hose pipes:- Hose pipes are commonly used where tapped water is available .they are used to convey water from the tap to where it is to be used. Hose pipes are best used for irrigation.

15) Using humans:- Water in containers can be carried by people on the head or the backs

Water Supply and Pollution

Practical Tips

1) Visit a water source. Find out how water is conveyed from the source to the area of use

2) Identify polluted water body. Find out methods used to prevent water pollution

3) Participate in a water pollution control exercise

4) Visit a water treatment plant. Note the various stages and chemicals used in water treatment

GUIDELINES FOR REPORT WRITING

1. Methods of water conveyance

Award the marks for each student as follows;

(i.) Naming the sources of water__ ____ ___ ____ ___ (1mark)

(ii.) Description of the source of water___ ___ ___ ____ (2mark)

(iii.) Mention the means of water conveyance___ ___ ___ ____ (1mark)

(iv.) Description of the water conveyance method ___ ___ ___ ____ (2mark)

(v.) Illustration of the method of water conveyance ___ ___ ___ ____ (2mark)

(vi.) Illustration of the source of water___ ___ ___ ____ (2mark)

TOTAL MARKS (10Marks)

2. Methods of controlling water pollution

Award the marks as follows;

(i.) Identification of each method of preventing water pollution__ __ __ _ _ __ (1mark)

(ii.) Explanation of how each method controls soil erosion__ __ __ _ _ __ (2mark)

TOTAL MARKS (3Marks)

Water Supply and Pollution

LESSON OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;

  • state the sources of water for the farm
  • describe water collection, storage, pumping and conveyance of water
  • describe water treatment and explain its importance
  • demonstrate an appreciation for clean water in farming and life in general.

Water Supply and Pollution

Sources of water.

Water from rainfall infiltrates the ground through pervious rock.  Where pervious rocks join impervious rock, the water comes out on the ground surface to form a spring. It collects and flow into a stream of water. 

Spring

Spring:- natural source of less contaminated water

Rivers and streams

Rivers and streams :-originating from a water catchments area

Wells are holes dug in the ground until the water table is reached

Lake

Lakes are huge collection of water on land depression which are fed by rivers, streams, springs and rain

Borehole

Boreholes are deep holes drilled into the ground by the use of machines

Stored Ponds

Rain water can be collected and stored in tanks or ponds for later use

Water Supply and Pollution

USES OF WATER

Uses of water on the farm.

Diluting agrochemicals

A farmer diluting agrochemicals using water.

Cooking food

A woman cooking food for the family

Watering livestock

A goat require water in the diet

Irrigation of crops

Water being used to irrigate coffee

List of the uses of water on the farm.

1 ) Diluting agrochemicals

2 ) Mixing concrete with water

3 ) Cooking food

4 ) Watering livestock irrigation

5 ) Cooling engines

Water Collection and Storage

Parts of a water collection system

Fuctions of water collection system parts

Drainage pipe:-Allows water to flow out of the tank during cleaning

Overflow pipe:-Allows excess water to flow out of the tank

Gutter:-Collects rain water from the roof

Inlet pipe:-Allows water to flow into the tank

Outlet pipe:-Allows water to flow out when water is being drawn

Dams,weirs and tanks store water collected during

rainy season for use during dry season.

Water Supply and Pollution

Pumping of Water

There are several types of water pumps used in the farm

  • Reciprocating pump
  • Centrifugal pump
  • Rotary pump
  • Hydram among others

Pumps are made of many different parts each with their fuctions

Parts and functions of a hydram pump include:-

Air chamber:- ensures continuous flow of water out of the pump

Delivery bulb:- prevents water from flowing back from the air chamber to the valve box

Impulse valve:- Creates high pressureof water within the valve box

Delivery pipe:-Allows the water to passout of the pump

Water Supply and Pollution

Methods of Water Conveyance

Ways through which water is moved from one point to another

Using canal

Canals are used to convey water for irrigation and livestock ,water flows through the canals using gravitational force therefore they carry water from higher areas to lower areas

Using animals
Water is put into containers such as drums, jerrycans, buckets and others. These water containers are carried by animals, or animal pulled carts.

Using a hose pipe
Hose pipes are commonly used where tapped water is available .they are used to convey water from the tap to where it is to be used. Hose pipes are best used for irrigation.


Using containers

Water in containers can be carried by people on the head or the backs

Using vehicle
Water in containers such as tanks can be carried by large trucks or lories to where it is required

Water Pollution

Agricultural practices that may contribute to water pollution;

Cultivation along the river banks

This opens the river banks to erosion making the water dirty. It is a government policy that when cultivating near a river a strip of 15m should be left with vegetation.

Controlling weeds using herbicides
Herbicides are toxic chemicals which when washed into the river makes the water poisonous
 

Livestock overgrazing
This lead to soil erosion. Water run off from an overgrazed area finds its way into the river, polluting the water.
 

Fertilizer application
When fertilizers are applied into the soil they dissolve and drain into the water sources

Prevention of water pollution by planting trees

Trees control soil erosion and so they help to keep the water clean and prevent sedimentation of the rivers.



 

 

Water Treatment and Supply

Stages in water treatment system

Water treatment involves:

Filtration at the intake

Removes the insoluble particles from the water

Softening

Water mixed with soda ash (sodium bicarbonate) for softening
And alum (aluminium sulphate) helps to coagulate solid particles
Removes magnesium and calcium ions thereby making water to foam easily with soap

Coagulation and Sedimentation

Allows solid particles to settle down making water clear

Filtration tank with layers of gravel and fine sand.

Removes the insoluble solid particles from the water

Chlorination controlled by a doser

Adds chlorine solutions which kills pathogens (micro-organisms)

Storage

Keeps water in good condition before use

Apart from chemical water treatment, another method of treating water is boiling.

Importance of treating water

  • To kill disease causing micro-organisms such as cholera,typhoid bacteria and bilharzias worms that thrive in dirty water.
  • Remove chemical impurities such as excess fluoride
  • Remove bad smell and taste
  • Remove sediments of solid particles

Water Supply

After water treatment water is stored in clean tanks.

Water is supplied to consumers through a network of pipes

Irrigation and Drainage
 

Application of water to plants
In the previous lesson you covered sources and uses of water in the farm.
Plants require water for all the life processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration so as to give good quality and quantity produce.
Plants water requirement varies from one type to another and is also dependent on other factors such as stages of growth, physiological,

morphology and prevailing weather conditions.

 

 


Glossary

1 . IRRIGATION: - process of supplying water to crops artificially
2 . SURFACE IRRIGATION:-process of supplying water to plants where water is allowed to flow on the land surface
3 . SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION:-process where water is available from under the soil surface using perforated pipes
4 . OVERHEAD IRRIGATION:-process where water is availed to crops from above.
5 . PADDY RICE:-rice growing in a leveled ground flooded with water
6 . DYKES AND LEVEES:-earth embankment enclosing water in a level ground
7 . SLUICE GATE: - earth barriers put along the canal to control the flow of water

8 . RECLAIM LAND:-make land useful for agricultural production
9 . FOLIAR FERTILIZER: - a type of application of fertilizer to be absorbed through the leaves of the plant.
10. WATER SUPPLY;-Is the provision of water for use in the farm

11. HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE:-is the circulation of water from the earth's surface to the atmosphere and then back to the earth's surface
12.WEIR:-is a barrier constructed across the river to raise the water level and still allow the water to flow over it
13.DAM:-is a barrier constructed across a river or a dry valley to hold water and raise its level to form a reservoir
14.PUMPING WATER:- Is the lifting of water from one point to another by use of mechanical force

15.CENTRIFUGAL FORCE:-is a force away from the centre

16.ROTARY MOTION:-Movement that goes round
17.RECIPROCATING MOTION:-Movement that goes back and forth .
18.WATERING ANIMAL:-Giving animal water to drink
19.DRAINAGE: process of removing excess water or lowering the water table from waterlogged area.
20.FRENCH DRAIN:-Are ditches dug, filled with stones and gravel and then covered with soil
21.CAMBERED BEDS :- Are raised and flattened earth embankments constructed on water logged areas.

Irrigation Practicals

1) Conduct a practical where you participate in carrying out different methods of irrigation applicable in the school. Divide the learners in groups so that they each group carries out a different method of irrigation as follows:

GroupI-irrigate the flower beds using watering cans

Group II 'irrigate the school lawns using water hose pipe

Group III ' connect the water hose to a sprinkler and use it to irrigate the vegetable garden

2) After the practical allow each group to make a presentation of their activity to others concerning:

(i.) The difficulties encountered

(ii.) Water control

(iii.) Efficiency of the method used

3) As the learners carry out the practical assess the work as follows:

a) Quantity of water applied-5marks

b) Degree of root exposure-5marks

c) Degree of erosion- 5 marks

d) Water wastage-5marks

TEACHERS TIPS ON DRAINAGE

1) Make a field trip to a nearby waterlogged place for the learners to observe the following:

a) Type of plants growing in the waterlogged area

b) Type of plants growing around the waterlogged areas

- The learners should compare the appearance of the plants in the waterlogged area and those growing on dry land

- The learners should give the most practical give the most practical ways of draining water from this area

2) Find out whether the learners have listed the following plants

(i.) Plants growing in the waterlogged areas;

- Arrow roots

- Water hyacinth

- Water reeds

(ii.) Plants growing around waterlogged areas

- Water cabbage

- Nut grass

3) Conclude the trip by making a statement that most of those plants growing in a waterlogged area are not useful to the farmer and therefore the need for drainage.

Quiz on irrigation

Irrigation and Drainage

Lesson Objectives

By the end of the lesson you should be able to

;

  • define irrigation
  • explain the importance of irrigation
  • describe the methods of irrigation
  • list the equipments and facilities used in irrigation
  • explain the maintenance practices carried out on irrigation equipment and facilities
  • appreciate a crop grown through irrigation
  • explain the importance of drainage
  • describe the methods of drainage.

Irrigation and Drainage

The areas covered in this lesson includes:-

  • Application of water to plants
  • Importance of irrigation
  •  Methods of irrigation
  • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods of irrigation
  • Equipments and facilities of irrigation
  • Maintenance on irrigation equipments and facilities
  •  Physical properties of soil
  •  Importance of drainage
  •  Methods of drainage
     

Irrigation Schemes in Kenya

 

What is irrigation?

Application of water to plants by man is referred to as irrigation

Importance of irrigation

Why is irrigation necessary?

Irrigation is necessary to reclaim arid and semi arid land

Irrigation is needed to supplement rainfall.

Irrigation provides enough water for growth of plants which require flooding e.g. paddy rice.

Methods of irrigation

Application of water to plants
During dry periods irrigation can be used to supplement rainfall in supplying sufficient moisture to crops.
The following are illustrated methods used in applying water to plants.

Use of sprinkler

Overhead irrigation in coffee crop

Drip method

Watering plants in drops

Flood irrigation

Flooding the farm with water

Watering can

Use of a watering can for irrigation

Furrows irrigation

Use of furrows for irrigation

Common terms used in irrigation

(i.) Subsurface irrigation involves application of water to plants under the soil surface

(ii.) Artificial application of water to plants in form of rain from above is called overhead irrigation

(iii.) Sluice gate is a barrier put along a canal to control the flow of water during flood irrigation

Irrigation

Irrigation facilities

Equipments used in irrigation.

Pivot irrigation system popular in large scale farming

Maintenance practice of irrigation facilities

Maintenance skills are required to ensure irrigation facilities are working. For example

  • Cleaning and unblok nozzles
  • Repair broken and and leaking pipes
  • Lubricate the moving parts of irrigation system
  • Apply antrust or paint metallic surfaces

 

Drainage

Importance of drainage

  • To increase soil aeration around the root zone for proper growth,
  • To increase soil volume near the root zone,
  • To raise soil temperature for better plant growth,
  • To reduce soil erosion by increased infiltration rate,
  • To increase microbial activity which improve soil structure and make plant food readily available.

Effects of poor drainage

  • Wilting of crops
  • Poor root development
  • unsuitable for livestock rearing

Methods of drainage

PLanting Trees

Planting eucalyptus tree

PUMPING

Can use water pumps for drainage but very expensive

SURFACE DRAINAGE

By use of:-

  • Open ditches
  • Cambered beds
  • French drains
  • underground drain pipes

 

 



 Water Supply Irrigation 

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 Water Supply Irrigation 




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