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Weathering

Symmetrical folds

When layers of rock are subjected to equal compressional forces from both sides,they foldupwards to form symmetrical folds.

The symmetrical fold has limbs that slope evenly away from the crest. The axis lies upright in the fold.

Symmetrical folds

When layers of rock are subjected to equal compressional forces from both sides,they foldupwards to form symmetrical folds.

The symmetrical fold has limbs that slope evenly away from the crest. The axis lies upright in the fold.

In this series we shall look at;

The Internal land forming proceses ,

Climate,

Vegetation and foresry.

You are expected to Navigate through this Geography resourse and interact with the content which you will find interesting . You are also be expected to attempt all the exercises for you to get a feedback on how much you have grasped from the content.

Learn and Enjoy

Look at the photographs of various features that we see as we cross the countryside.

These features are known as landforms. Landforms are formed as a result of physical and chemical mechanisms known as processes. These processes operate from within the interior of the earth or the earth's surface.

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INTERNAL LAND FORMING PROCESSES

By the end of the session you should be able to:

define earth movements.

explain the horizontal and vertical earth movements

explain the causes of earth movements

What are earth movements?

Types of earth movements

 

By the end of the session you should be able to

explain the causes of earth movements.

Causes of earth movements

Movement of magma

The interior of the earth has molten rock called magma. When a weak line occurs within the crustal rocks, magma flows through fissures and cracks. The magma occupies a void within the crust. The rocks can be displaced either vertically or horizontally.

Gravitative Pressure

The force of gravity tends to pull all objects towards the earths centre. This force of gravity pulls crustal rocks into the cavities that have been created by movement of magma.

Convectional Currents

Convectional currents in the mantle cause molten rock to circulate in a cyclical manner.The currents move from inside the mantle towards the upper surface of the mantle, then horizontally and finally vertically.

Isostatic Adjustments

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By the end of this session, you should be able to

explain the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics.  

The theories of continental drift and plate tectonics

Earth movements take place all the time. There are two theories of earth movement namely:

Continental drift theory

Plate tectonic theory

Continental drift theory

 

This theory was suggested by Alfred Wegner' a Germany scientist in 1900. Wegener argued out that the earth was a single landmass called Pangea. This land mass was surrounded by a great ocean.

Pangea later broke up into two land masses .The northern continent called laurasia and the southern called Gondwanaland. These two were separated by a narrow sea known as Tethys.

The jig saw fit.

The continents seem to fit into a geological and geometric jig saw. For example the eastern coastline of South America appears to fit in well into the western Africa coast.
 


The coast of Mexico and North America seem to fit well into the North Western and Northern coasts of Africa.

Geological structure

Rocks of similar types, ages,formation and structure are found in different continents. Rocks in West Africa can be matched with rocks in Brazil.

Evidence of ancient glacial deposits.

Similar glacial deposits are found dispersed over vast areas such as South America, Australia, South Africa, India and Antarctica.

This is indication that these regions were once one land mass.
 

Similarities between fossils

The remains of plants and animals found in the southern continents are similar to those found in North America and Europe.

Similar Fold Mountains in Africa and South America.

The Fold Mountains of South Africa and S. America resemble the ones in s. America. These folds have an East-West trend and are of the same geological age.

The Mid - Atlantic Ridge

Geological studies show that there are continuous mountain ranges that extend the whole length of the Atlantic Ocean bed.

These ranges are made up of recent volcanic rocks.This is proof that mountain building process is still taking place to fill in gaps left after continents drifted.

From the use of terms provided, choose the one that describes the statements

a, and b, below.

Plate Tectonics theory

According to the Plate Tectonics theory it is believed that the earth's lithosphere which is made up of SIAL and SIMA is a series of semi-rigid blocks called tectonic plates. These plates have distinct boundaries.

The movement of these plates results in the formation of three types of boundaries. Extension boundary.

An extension boundary is also known as constructive boundary.

As the plates move away from each other, the gaps created are filled with magma that comes out of from the mantle, forming a ridge

 

Compressional Boundary

The compression boundary is also known as destructive boundary. This is formed when plates move towards each other. The material at the edges is destroyed as the plates collide. The margins where plates are destroyed are known as subduction zones or destructive margins. When an oceanic plate meets a continental plate, the continental plate is compressed to form Fold Mountains while the oceanic plate sinks beneath the continental one forming an ocean trench.
 

Conservative Boundary

When two plates move past each other along a transform fault no material is added or destroyed.


 

 

Plate Tectonics theory

According to the Plate Tectonics theory it is believed that the earth's lithosphere which is made up of SIAL and SIMA is a series of semi-rigid blocks called tectonic plates. These plates have distinct boundaries.

There are seven major plates which are:North American plate, South American Plate, Nazca plate, African plate, Eurasin plate, Pacific plate and Austrarian Indian plate.

The movement of these plates results in the formation of three types of boundaries.

 

Extension boundary

An extension boundary is also known as constructive boundary. As the plates move away from each other, the gaps created are filled with magma that comes out of from the mantle, forming a ridge

Compressional Boundary
The compression boundary is also known as destructive boundary. This is formed when plates move towards each other. The material at the edges is destroyed as the plates collide. The margins where plates are destroyed are known as subduction zones or destructive margins. When an oceanic plate meets a continental plate, the continental plate is compressed to form Fold Mountains while the oceanic plate sinks beneath the continental one forming an ocean trench.

Conservative Boundary
When two plates move past each other along a transform fault no material is added or destroyed.


 

 

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By the end of the session, you should be able to:

a) define the term folds

b) describe the types of folds

c) describe the features formed by folding

d) account for the world distribution of fold mountains system.

e) explain the significance of feature formed by folding.

FOLDING

Folding is the process by which rocks of the earth's crust are bent upwards or downwards. The rocks are bent when the earth's crust is subjected to compressional forces.

 

Types of folds

Asymmetrical fold

The asymmetrical fold results from unequal compressional forces acting on the crustal rocks. The forces are stronger on one side than on the other. The fold has one limb that is steeper than the other. The axis is bent on an angle.

Overfold

An over fold is formed when an anticline is pushed such that it bends over the limb of the next anticline. It is formed when a very strong force pushes against a very resistant force.

Recumbent fold

A recumbent fold forms when the overfold is completely pushed so that it lies on the next anticline.The axis of the fold is almost horizontal.

Over thrust

The over thrust fold may also be called Nappe. When the layers of rock are more resistant to compression, a fracture may form as the fold develops. As a result, one limb may thrust over the next along the fracture.

Isoclinal

Isoclinal folds are a group of folds that occur closely together. There are two types of isoclinal folds. Vertical isoclinal folds and inclined isoclinal folds.

 

Anticlinorium and synchlonorium

Anticlinorium and synchlonorium complex is a type of fold which forms in places where land that had previously experienced folding is folded again.

The earlier folds are smaller, but the later folds for larger anticlines and synclines. Each anticline and syncline has numerous minor folds superimposed upon them. These new folds are called anticlinorium and synclonorium.

Features resulting from folding

Rolling plains consist of gently slopping anticlines and wide shallow synclines.Such plains form when level land is subjected to weak compressional forces.

The ridge and valley

The ridge and valley landscape develops where compressional forces are stronger

.

 

Inter-montane plateau

Inter-montane plateau are wide gently slopping areas that lie in the middle of mountains.examples are of intermontane plateaus are; Saharan Atlas of Algeria and Tibetan plateau in the Himalayas

Such a plateau form when the middle parts of the area experiencing compressional forces resist folding.The rocks on the edges are extensively folded to form mountains.

Intermontanne basins

During the formation of inter-montane plateaus , some parts may sink to form basins called inter-montane basins. Rain water may collect in the basins to form lakes. Most of the lakes have no outlets and so they are very salty. Examples of intermontane basins are, Great basin of Nevada and Utah in USA.

 

Fold Mountains


 

Fold Mountains are the most outstanding features formed by folding. The worlds highest, most extensive and most impressive mountains are formed by folding.Examples of such mountains are the ALPs of Europe, the Atlas of North Africa and the Himalayas of Asia. Various theories have been put forward by scientist to explain the formation of Fold Mountains
These Theories are;-

  1. The Contraction Theory
  2. TheConvectional Current Theory
  3. The Continental Drift Theory
  4. ThePlateTectonics Theory

The Contraction Theory

The Contraction Theory explains that during the formation of the earth the surface rocks cooled and contracted faster than those of the interior and therefore the surface rocks formed wrinkles in order to fit on the rocks of the interior which were still cooling and contracting.

The wrinkled rocks became fold mountains.

The Convectional Current Theory

The conventional current theory explain that the molten rocks of the mantle are mobile. This mobility is caused by conventional currents.

They carry the layers of the crust horizontally over the mantle. Where the conventional currents converge.Sediments on the edges of the layers of the crust are squeezed. They bend upwards to fold mountains.

The Continental Drift Theory

The continental drift theory and the Plate tectonic theory have been combined to explain the formation of some fold mountains.

There existed a large depression (geosynclines) separating two continents.It was filled with ocean water Due to erosion in the surrounding continents, sediments were brought into depression. The weight of the sediment caused the floor of the depression to sink into the mouth. The sagging caused the continent to move towards the geosynclines. The sediments were squeezed and folding upwards to form Fold Mountains.

The fold mountains of the world were formed at different periods. These periods are called orogenies.

World distribution of fold mountain systems

Fold mountains occur on almost every continent in the world. Along the west coast of both North and south America, along the margins of the Mediterranean sea in both southern Europe and North Africa and in Asia. Most of them occur on continents margins or most of plate boundaries where compress ional forces form compression boundaries.

Negative significance

Rain shadow

Fold mountains are a barrier to rain bearing wind, causing dryness on the leeward slopes.

Transport Barriers

Crossing fold mountains is difficult due to the fact that they are very rugged. Roads are difficult to build.

Settlement barrier

The building of difficult on the slopes, making settlement sparse or absent.

minerals buried

Folding may bury minerals deep inside the crust making them inaccessible.

Background knowledge
There are two types of earth movements. These are:

  1. Horizontal movements
  2. Vertical movements

Due to horizontal movements the earth's material is forced to shorten, stretch and shear.
The vertical movements move up and down along the earth's crust.

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By the end of the lesson the learner should be able to

;

a) define the term faulting.

b) explain the processes of faulting.

c) describe the types of faults

d) explain the features formed by faulting

e) give reasons for the distribution of features formed due to faulting

f) explain the significance of faulting to human activities

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Faulting

 

By the end of the lesson the learner should be able to;

define the term faulting.

explain the processes of faulting.

Definition
Faulting is the fracturing or cracking of rocks of the earth's crust due to tectonic forces.
The line along which the rocks fracture or crack is called a fault or the fault line.
The rocks fracture when the earth's crust is subjected to compressional forces.


By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

Process of faulting

The processes of faulting are closely related to compressional and tensional forces.Compressional forces push rocks together. Hard rocks resist the faults but eventually break to form faults (cracks). Parallel faults may form due to compressional forces. In such a case, a central block may form.The central block sinks to form a valley

Tensional forces may result in the formation of parallel faults due to stress in the rocks. The land between two faults forms a central block.

 

By the end of the lesson you should be able to

  1. describe the types of faults
  2. explain the features formed by faulting

Types of faults


 

Normal fault

A normal fault is formed by tensional forces acting on crustal rocks making one of the blocks of land slide downwards along the fault plane.

Normal faults are very common in the east African section of the great rift valley.

 


 

Reserved faults

Reversed faults are formed by compressonal forces acting on crustal rocks pushing one of the blocks of land over the other along the fault plane.

Reserved faults are common on the Ruwenzori in western Uganda.
 

Shear or tear faults

Shear or tear faults may result from either compressional or tensional forces.shear faults are also known as wrench, strike-slip or transform faults.

Shear or tear faults are therefore faults formed when blocks of land slide horizontally along the fault plane.

Anticlinal faults

Anticlinal faults are common on or near the crest of fold mountains.

Compressional forces can cause the crustal rocks to fold upwards into an anticline. Further compression of the same crustal rocks may cause stress on the rocks of the anticline forcing them to form deep cracks on the anticline. These cracks that are formed are called anticlinal faults.

 

 

Features resulting from faulting

Fault scarps
They are steep, cliff like slopes formed by vertical movements of the earth's crust along the fault. When an upthrow occurs along the fault, the face of the fault plane facing the downthrow is the fault scarp.


Fault scarps are commonly known as escarpments. However, not all escarpments result from faulting. Examples of fault scarps in Kenya include Elgeyo Marakwet, Nyando, Nandi, Nyandarua, Kikuyu and Mau escarpments, Lake Manyara scarp in Tanzania. In Uganda we have the Butiaba scarp which bolders lake Albert.

Fault steps

These occur as a series of steps up a slope. They are formed when a series of parallel faults occur in an area. The blocks seprataed by the faults are displaced vertically to different levels.

The diagram shows a series of fault scarps at different levels. The horizontal parts of the fault scarps form the fault steps. This type of faulting is called step faulting.Fault steps can be seen on the eastern slopes of the rift valley between Mai Mahiu and Naivasha.

Block mountains
These are masses of raised land that extend for several kilometers.They are bordered by fault scarps on either sides.These elongated masses of land are formed where two parallel faults extend for long distances.
The land between the faults may be uplifted due to compressional forces. In some cases, the land masses on either side of the central block may be pulled away by tensional forces, forming a downthrow.This leaves the central block rising high above the surrounding land.

The mountains formed this way are called horsts, fault blocks or block mountains. Examples of block mountains include the Ruwenzoris in Western Uganda, Mau and Aberdare ranges in Kenya and the Usambara and Pare mountains in Tanzania.

Tilt blocks

During the formation of a block mountain, the forces causing the uplift may be greater on one side, causing greater uplift on that side. Such a feature is known as a tilt block.


Aberdare ranges was uplifted and tilted eastwards. The Ruwenzori block was uplifted more on the western and northern sides causing it to tilt eastwards.

 

Rift valleys

A rift valley is an elongated trough formed between parallel faults. It is bordered on either side by infacing fault scarps.

 

Rift valleys vary in width from a number of metres to several kilometers.The formation of rift valleys will be discussed during the study of the Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley

The great rift valley is one of the most spectacular features in the world.

It was formed 30million years ago and stretches from the Afars depression to Mozambique in southern Africa. It is also referred to as the East Africa Rift valley.

What is the origin of the Great Rift Valley.

The Great Rift Valley is a linear feature which I spart of the rift system that comprise agroup of rift valleys. The Rift valley system streches from Jordan entering the Africa at the Afars depression.

According to geologists the Great Rift Valley was formed through a succession of parallel faults. The faulting caused dislocation and fracturing of the rocks. Three theories in which the rift valley was formed have been identified.First, the Rift Valley may have been formed by tensional forces.

Rocks broke along the lines of weakness making the middle block of the land mass to sink forming the valley.

The walls of the rift valley shows these steps because the rift valleys are made of succession of different parallel faults.
Secondly,the great rift valley was formed through compression.

Internal forces shortened the rocks of the crust which gradually broke when they could no longer withstand intense pressure.
 

Such faulting shows that the rift valley is not symmetrical.Some scarps are steep while others are gentle. For instance the scarps to the west of Lake Bogoria.Thirdly, the Great Rift Valley was formed by up arching of the crust from internal forces. The rocks broke into a series of faults.

 

 

 

 

Exercise
Answer the following questions by clicking on the correct answer.
1. Which one of the following lake is found in the rift valley?

  1. Malawi
  2. Victoria
  3. Magadi
  4. Naivasha
  1. Three of the following are Horst Mountains. Which ONE is not.
    1. Pare
    2. Usambara
    3. Kilimanjaro
    4. Ruwenzori
  2. Which type of faulting is common along compressional forces?
  1. Normal
  2. Reversed
  3. Shear
  4. Anticlinal

4. The branch of rift valley found along western part of North America is

  1. Great rift valley
  2. San andreas fault
  3. Rhine rift valley

                                 (diagram)
        5.  The feature marked x on the diagram is

  1. Escarpment
  2. Horst mountain
  3. Rift valley
  4. Tilt block

Answers

  1. A
  2. C
  3. B
  4. B
  5. C

By the end of this session you should be able to

account for the distribution of features formed due to faulting

World distribution of features due to Faulting

There are many features formed as a result of faulting. These features include; Rift valleys, Lakes, Escarpments and Horst/block Mountains.

These features are commonly found along tectonic plates boundaries.


 

The boundaries are:Extension boundaries,

Compression boundaries,

Conservative boundaries

Extension boundaries where the tectonic plates move away from each other also known as extension boundaries causing normal faulting.

Compression boundaries where tectonic plates collide forcing the weaker plate to move under the more stable plate which causes reverse faulting.

Conservative boundaries where plates move past each other causing shear faulting.

Significance of faulting to human activities

Spectacular features have been formed as a result of faulting such as Block Mountains, plateaus, hot springs, lakes. These features attract foreign and domestic tourist which is a major source of government revenue and foreign exchange. The lakes are natural habitats of wildlife.

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By the end of the session you should be able to

;

    • define the term vulcanicity.
    • describe types of intrusive features.
    • describe how extrusive volcanic faetures are formed.
    • give for the world distribution of features due to volcanicity
    • explain the significance of vulcanicity to human activities

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Vulcanicity

 

Vulcanicity is the process through which solids liquids and gaseous materials originating fro the interior of the earth are forced into the earths crust or on the earth surface.The solids liquids and gaseous materials are ejected on the earths surface they form extrusive features. While those materials that are not able to reach the earth surface are deposited within the earths crust to form intrusive features.

Definition
Vulcanicity is the process through which solids liquids and gaseous materials originating fro the interior of the earth are forced into the earths crust or on the earth surface.


  The solids liquids and gaseous materials are ejected on the earths surface they form extrusive features. While those materials that are not able to reach the earth surface are deposited within the earths crust to form intrusive features.


By the end of this session you should be able to

describe types of intrusive features.

Intrusive features

Dykes

Dykes are formed when a mass of magma cuts across bedding plane
Cracks or faults provide the route through which the magma flows and it cools and solidifies to form dykes.

Some dykes are exposed are vertical while others are inclined. Dykes may be eroded to form shallow trenches while those that resist erosion may stand out as ridges. Examples: west of L. Turkana, Jos plateau in , Devils Knuckles in SA, Tororo rock in Uganda









 

Sills


These are formed when magma is embedded along the bedding plane.If sills are made of resistant rock they form ridge like escarpments when exposed to the surface by erosion.

Examples of sills include, three sisters of South Africa, Fouta Djalon in Guinea.

Batholiths

These are large masses of magma which accumulate into the earths crust. Batholiths sometimes form roots of mountains.Batholiths extend to great depths below the earths surface. They are made up of granite and may be associated with valuable minerals.

Examples; Nyanza batholiths near L. Victoria, Chinamora in Zimbabwe

Laccoliths

When Viscous magma is intruded along the bedding plane near the earth surface it aches the overlying rocks to form a dome shaped feature. This feature is known as laccoliths.


 

Examples: Tsavo near Voi, Fonjay and Ambereny massif in Madagascar.



 

Lopoliths

This is a saucer shaped intrusive feature which is formed when magma is pushed through a vent and solidifies between in bedding planes.

Once the magma has been embedded along the bedding planes the weight of magma and the weakened rocks beneath sag in to leave a warped shallow basin which take a saucer shape.
Examples: Bush Veldt lopolith in Transvaal SA, Um Vukwe range in Zambia.

 
 

Phaccoliths

These are lens shaped igneous intrusion which form near the crest of an anticline or in trough of a syncline.The phacoliths form on the crest or on syncline.

Examples; Corndon hill in Shropshire, England

by the end of the session you should be able to explain extrusive features formed due to vulcanicity

Volcanoes

Acid lava is very sticky and viscous. It solidifies fast and therefore does not flow far from the vent before solidifying.

Basic and ultra basic lava are very light, Fluid and have low viscosity. This makes the lave to flow a long distance before solidifying.

 

Acid lava cones
Dome shaped volcanoes formed from the eruption of acid or intermediate lava. It leads to the formation of dome shaped volcanoes with steep slopes with a narrow base.

Composite volcano

This is made of alternating layers of pylocrasts (ash and cinder) and lava. It may have other features such as a crater, and parasitic cone.

A composite volcano consists of layers of ash and lava formed when successive eruptions occur. Secondary cones may develop; examples include Mt Kenya, Kilimanjaro, Elgon in Kenya, Muhavura in Uganda, Mt Kilimanjaro in Tanzania

Ash and cider cone

These are volcanoes built of loose rock fragments violently blown to great heights before settling around the vents. Examples likaiyu and Teleki to the south of lake Turkana.

Basaltic lava shield

Abroad and gently sloping volcanic dome formed from basic lava.
Examples include Mt Marsabit in Kenya,Nyamlagira on Zaire Rwanda border, Tukuyu in Tanzania.



                           

Volcanic depressions

There are two types of volcanic depressions; a crater and caldera.

 

Crater


 

This is a rounded funnel shaped hollow at the mouth of a volcanic vent. A crater may form as a result of violent explosions or due to the collapse of top of the a vent.

Caldera
A caldera is an enlarged crater at the top of a volcano it may form;into ways.Firstly it may form after subsequent;violent eruptions blow off the top of a volcano.Secondly it may also form after a cone collapses into a hollow left behind due to depletion of magma.





                           

 

Lava plateau

A plateau is a raised extensive, relatively flat are of land. A lava plateau is formed from fissure eruption which leads to accumulation of lava over a wide area.





                           

Hot springs

A Hot spring is superheated water that sips out of the ground through cracks and holes.

Geyser

A geyser is where hot water is ejected at intervals from underground with considerable force accompanied steam.


 

Volcanic plug

Volcanic plug is a column of magma that solidified in the vent of a volcano. The volcano is eroded by agents of denudation and with time it is exposed to the surface.

                     

Basaltic lava shield

Abroad and gently sloping volcanic dome formed from basic lava.
Examples include Mt Marsabit in Kenya, Nyamlagira on Zaire Rwanda border, Tukuyu in Tanzania

a.

                           

By the end of the session you should be able to

account for the world distribution of feature due to volcanicity

 

World distribution of vulcanicity

volcanic features are found along tectonic boundaries. The features are found on land and sea floor.


   Roll the mouse over the map to view volcanoes by the end of the session you should be able to explain the significance of vulcanicity to man activities

Significance Of Vulcanicity To Human Activities

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By the end of the session you should be able to:

  • Define earthquakes
  • Explain the causes of the earthquakes
  • Describe how earth quakes are measured
  • Account for the world distribution of earth quake zone
  • Explain the effects of earthquakes.

         

 

Earthquakes

By the end of the session you should be able to:

    • Define earthquakes Explain the causes of the earthquakes
    • Describe how earth quakes are measured
    • Account for the world distribution of earth quake zone
    • explain the effects of earthquakes.

Definition Of Earthquakes

    

An earthquake is the shaking of the ground due to a sudden and rapid displacement of rocks beneath the earth surface.

Types of Earthquake waves

By the end of this session you should be able to

explain the causes of the earthquakes

Causes of Earth Quakes

There are several possible causes of earthquakes ;

Tectonic Plates Movement

The movement of tectonic plates towards, alongside or away from each other may cause tension and friction along the plate boundaries.

During fracturing of the rock due to tension or friction shock waves released are felt as earthquakes

 

Energy release in the mantle

Radioactivity taking place in a localized are within the mantle may result to excessive energy release. This could be explosive sending shock waves outwards into the crustal rocks resulting in the earth shaking.

volcanic activity

During volcanic activity magma may suddenly and rapidly displaces crustal rocks. The adjusting crustal rocks may create vibrations which result in earthquakes.

Melting ice from ice caps and denudation in uplands for a long time may reduce weight in the ice cap regions and uplands. The melt water and sediments end up in the oceans.

Where considerable weight is added to the oceanic crust, it may lead to isostatic adjustments accompanied by shock waves

Water reservoirs

Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause tremor.

The addition of massive quantities of water to a restricted area may cause considerable pressure on underlying crustal rocks which respond by adjusting accordingly .This causes minor shock waves (tremors)

 

Underground nuclear tests

Underground nuclear tests may also trigger small vibrations or earth tremors.

  by the end of this session you should  be able to
describe how earth quakes are measured
 

Measurement of earthquakes

An earthquake is measured on an instrument known as a seismograph.The strength of an earthquake is measured by its intensity and magnitude.

Intensity indicates how hard the ground shakes and is measured on the Mercalli scale.

On the other hand, magnitude shows the amount of energy given off by an earthquake. It is measured on a logarithmic scale known as the Ritcher scale.

 

by the end of this session you should  be able to

account for the world distribution of earth quake zone

 

World distribution of earthquakes zones

 

World 's major earthquakes occur in the zones where tectonic plates meet,separate or move alongside each other.

           
             

By the end of the session you should be able to

explain the effects of earthquakes.

Effects of Earthquakes.

 



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KCSE ONLINE WEBSITE provide KCSE, KCPE and MOCK Past Papers which play a great role in students� performance in the KCSE examination.

Choosing the KCSE mock examination revision material saves you a lot of time spent during revision for KCSE. It is also cost effective 

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sit amet congue Mock Past Papers, give you an actual exam situation in readiness for your forthcoming national examination from the Kenya National Examination Council KNEC

Choosing the KCSE mock examination revision material saves you a lot of time spent during revision for KCSE. It is also cost effective sapien. 

Choosing the KCSE mock examination revision material saves you a lot of time spent during revision for KCSE. It is also cost effective sapien. 



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As a supplementary to coursework content our e-library for digitized multimedia CDs while enhance and ensure that you never missed that important concept during the normal class lessons. It is a Do it Yourself Project..

Candidates who would want their papers remarked should request for the same within a month after release of the results. Those who will miss out on their results are advised to check with their respective school heads and not with the examination council

For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Test the link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer. 


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Buy e-Content Digital CD covering all the topics for a particular class per year. One CDs costs 1200/- ( Per Subject per Class )


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We have an enourmous data quiz bank of past papers ranging from 1995 - 2017


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